Dott. Sergio Resta
Dott. Sergio Resta

 Ultimo aggiornamento 20.10.2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Relazione tra carenza di Vitamina D e scarsa irradiazione solare.

 

 

Writing in the April 30 online issue of theJournal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, researchers at University of California San Diego School of Medicine report pancreatic cancer rates are highest in countries with the least amount of sunlight. Low sunlight levels were due to a combination of heavy cloud cover and high latitude.

"If you're living at a high latitude or in a place with a lot of heavy cloud cover, you can't make vitamin D most of the year, which results in a higher-than-normal risk of getting pancreatic cancer," said first author Cedric F. Garland, DrPH, adjunct professor in the Department of Family Medicine and Public Health and member of UC San Diego Moores Cancer Center.

"People who live in sunny countries near the equator have only one-sixth of the age-adjusted incidence rate of pancreatic cancer as those who live far from it. The importance of sunlight deficiency strongly suggests - but does not prove - that vitamin D deficiency may contribute to risk of pancreatic cancer."

Limited foods naturally contain vitamin D. Fatty fish, such as salmon and tuna, are good sources; beef liver, cheese and egg yolks provide small amounts. Vitamin D is often added as a fortifying nutrient to milk, cereals and juices, but experts say most people also require additional vitamin D to be produce by the body when skin is directly exposed to sunlight. Specifically, ultraviolet B radiation. Skin exposed to sunshine indoors through a window will not produce vitamin D. Cloudy skies, shade and dark-colored skin also reduce vitamin D production.

The UC San Diego team, led by Garland and Edward D. Gorham, PhD, associate professor, had previously shown that sufficient levels of a metabolite of vitamin D in the serum, known as 25-hydroxyvitamin D was associated with substantially lower risk of breast and colorectal cancer. The current paper is the first to implicate vitamin D deficiency with pancreatic cancer.

Researchers studied data from 107 countries, taking into account international differences and possible confounders, such as alcohol consumption, obesity and smoking. "While these other factors also contribute to risk, the strong inverse association with cloud-cover adjusted sunlight persisted even after they were accounted for," said Garland.

UC San Diego researchers had previously identified an association of high latitude with a higher risk of pancreatic cancer. Garland said the new study advances that finding by showing that an estimate of solar ultraviolet B that has been adjusted for heavy cloud cover produces an even stronger prediction of risk of pancreatic cancer.

Pancreatic cancer is the 12th most common cancer in the world, according to World Cancer Research Fund International, with 338,000 new cases diagnosed annually. Incidence rates are highest in North America and Europe; lowest in Africa and Asia. It is the seventh most common cause of death from cancer.

 

 

Vitamina D

 

 

La vitamina D3, o colecalciferolo, è una delle due principali varianti della vitamina D, una vitamina liposolubile. Nei supplementi nutrizionali, esiste sotto le forme D2 (ergocalciferolo) e D3. Nel fegato, tutte e due vengono convertite in 25-idrossi-vitamina D, o 25(OH)D.

L'implicazione della vitamina D nella salute delle ossa è conosciuta da molto tempo. Uno dei principali ruoli biologici è quello di mantenere dei livelli sanguigni appropriati di calcio e di fosforo. Favorendo l'assorbimento del calcio, aiuta a formare e a mantenere le ossa solide.
Da una decina di anni, le ricerche mostrano che la vitamina D potrebbe avere numerosi altri effetti benefici a condizione di essere somministrata a dosi appropriate.

Alcuni studi scientifici suggeriscono che l'utilizzo della vitamina D potrebbe diminuire il rischio di 17 tipi diversi di tumori, compresi quello del colon, del seno, della prostata, delle ovaie, dell'esofago, dei reni o della vescica. Potrebbe anche migliorare i risultati di trattamenti di pazienti con un tumore già diagnosticato.

Il dottor Cedric F. Garland, specialista della prevenzione dei tumori al Moores Cancer Center dell'Università della California a San Diego, ritiene che 250.000 casi di tumore del colon e 350.000 casi di tumore al seno potrebbero essere prevenuti ogni anno nel mondo aumentando il consumo di vitamina D3. Alcuni studi indicano che l'effetto protettivo della vitamina D comincia quando si raggiungono dei livelli serici di 25(OH)D compresi fra 24 e 32 ng/ml. Una riduzione importante del rischio di questi tumori potrebbe essere ottenuta, secondo questi studi, con l'assunzione quotidiana di 2.000 UI di vitamina D3.

Un studio suggerisce che la vitamina D potrebbe aiutare a prevenire o a rallentare la frequenza o lo sviluppo del tumore alla prostata in alcuni pazienti che sono stati trattati per questa malattia.

La vitamina D potrebbe migliorare la percentuale di sopravvivenza di pazienti affetti da un tumore dei polmoni.

La vitamina D3 esercita un effetto immunomodulatore. Un articolo scientifico indica l'ipotesi che delle infezioni stagionali, come l'influenza, potrebbero essere dovute a una diminuzione delle concentrazioni di vitamina D durante il periodo invernale e non a un aumento dell'attività virale.

Dei livelli bassi di 25(OH)D sono associati a una prevalenza più elevata di ipertensione, di diabete, di obesità e di livelli serici elevati di trigliceridi.

In alcuni pazienti affetti da un'insufficienza cardiaca congestiva, l'assunzione quotidiana di 2.000 UI di vitamina D associate a 500 mg di calcio ha diminuito il livello di citochine proinfiammatorie in parte responsabili del relativo stato.
In alcune persone anziane, un'integrazione con vitamina D ha diminuito la predisposizione al diabete rallentando la perdita di sensibilità all'insulina.
Nelle persone anziane, un'integrazione con vitamina D3 ha ridotto in maniera importante il rischio di caduta.

La vitamina D3 viene generalmente ben tollerata negli adulti, a delle dosi quotidiane che vanno fino a 2.000 UI. Diverse ricerche indicano che potrebbero anche essere utilizzati senza rischio fino a 10.000 UI quotidiani, laddove le autorità sanitarie hanno fissato la dose di sicurezza a 1.000 UI/j. Gli scienziati sono tuttavia convinti che i fabbisogni di un adulto in buona salute sono vicini a 1.000 UI al giorno.

 

 

 

Non passa settimana senza che non vengano pubblicati uno o più studi scientifici sui pericoli della carenza di vitamina D o sui suoi effetti benefici.

¤ Si è a lungo pensato che la vitamina D fosse essenziale soprattutto per la salute delle ossa. Ma gli scienziati continuano a dimostrare il suo ruolo fondamentale nella divisione e differenziazione cellulare e la sua influenza sul sistema immunitario. Un livello insufficiente di vitamina D è legato praticamente a tutti i disturbi correlati all'invecchiamento, tra cui il rischio di fratture, il cancro, le malattie vascolari, il diabete, il morbo di Parkinson o l'infiammazione cronica. Al contrario, con livelli più elevati di vitamina D, si contrae un numero minore di raffreddori, influenze o altre infezioni.

¤ Secondo lo studio francese SUVIMAX, il cibo apporterebbe in media solo 136 UI di vitamina D, in particolare con il consumo di pesci grassi come sgombro, aringhe, salmone (400-800 IU/100g), conchiglie (200-300 IU/100g) o sardine in scatola (100 IU/100g). Quindi, molto poco presente nella dieta, è principalmente sintetizzato (per i due terzi) nei giorni di sole, sotto l'effetto dei raggi UVB, da un derivato del colesterolo, l'7-deidrocolesterolo. Tuttavia, per la sintesi ottimale della vitamina D da parte dell'organismo, bisognerebbe esporre braccia, busto e gambe tutti i giorni, a partire dal mese di marzo, per 10-15 minuti a mezzogiorno, altrimenti ci sarebbero pochi UVB e troppi UVA. Inoltre, in estate, accade che le radiazioni efficaci non superino l'80% delle radiazioni totali, a seguito di eventuali annuvolamenti più o meno importanti. Infine, nel mese di ottobre, i raggi UVB diventano insufficienti e anche una vacanza sulla neve non è sufficiente a sintetizzare questa vitamina preziosa.

¤ Tuttavia, la situazione è comune: le popolazioni dei paesi occidentali, Francia, Belgio, Stati Uniti, Svizzera e Canada, hanno livelli molto inadeguati di vitamina D. Questo vale soprattutto durante i mesi invernali. ¤ Nella maggior parte dei paesi sviluppati, le dosi giornaliere raccomandate sono troppo basse per proteggere la salute. In Francia, ad esempio, le dosi alimentari raccomandate (ANC) per un adulto, purtroppo, sono drammaticamente basse, perché fissate a solo 200 UI (5 mcg) al giorno. In realtà, i bisogni di vitamina D sono 10-25 volte superiori a questo standard, perché il corpo utilizza fino a 5000 UI al giorno.

¤ Nel 2007, quindici ricercatori, biochimici, medici, epidemiologi, esperti di salute pubblica hanno denunciato questa situazione che porta a carenze significative di vitamina D nelle popolazioni dell'emisfero settentrionale. Questi ricercatori credevano che i bisogni di vitamina D fossero vicini a 1.000 UI al giorno. All'inizio del 2010, sono quaranta gli scienziati internazionali che hanno lanciato un appello per educare i medici sull'importanza della vitamina D nella prevenzione dell'osteoporosi, delle malattie cardiache e del cancro. Per loro, un'integrazione di 1000-2000 UI, per tutta la popolazione, è particolarmente raccomandata da ottobre a marzo, durante l'autunno e l'inverno, per soddisfare l'esigenza di vitamina D.

¤ In autunno, occorrerebbe quindi far analizzare i livelli ematici di 25(OH)D3 e mirare a un livello di 30-60 ng/ml (75-150 nmol/ml), sapendo che gli studi mostrano ad esempio una protezione ottimale contro il cancro al seno a partire da 52 ng/ml.

¤ Ma, senza necessariamente ricorrere alle analisi del sangue della vitamina D, è importante conoscere i "fattori di rischio" che potrebbero portare a livelli bassi di vitamina D circolante:

• Vivere in una città o una regione con inquinamento atmosferico, poiché la SO2 assorbe i raggi UV.
• Indossare indumenti coprenti tutto l'anno.
• Avere una pelle pigmentata (marrone chiaro, pelle scura o nera).
• Avere più di 70 anni, perché, a questa età, la sintesi di D3 è quattro volte inferiore, perché la pelle è diventata più sottile.
• Essere in sovrappeso, perché la D3 è conservata negli adipociti.
• Utilizzare in modo sistematico creme anti-UVB (indice >15), poiché tali prodotti possono ridurre del 99% i raggi UVB che penetrano la pelle.
• Esporsi dietro un vetro (veranda ad esempio), perché il vetro assorbe tutti i raggi UVB.
• Non mangiare pesci grassi (meno di una volta a settimana).
• Praticare dell'attività fisica all'aperto.
• Ammalarsi spesso (raffreddori ripetuti).
• Assumere anticonvulsivanti, corticosteroidi o farmaci antiretrovirali.
• Essere affetti da insufficienza renale o epatica, ipertiroidismo, morbo di Crohn o celiachia.

Alcune ricerche indicano che una dose di 5000 UI al giorno potrebbe quindi avere molteplici effetti benefici sulla maggior parte della popolazione. È anche la dose raccomandata dal Vitamin D council. La vitamina D3 può essere anche usata senza rischi a dosi fino a 10 000 UI/die. Inoltre, assumere queste dosi giornaliere consente di riprodurre ciò che accade quando si è esposti al sole tutti i giorni e soprattutto di regolare il dosaggio in base alle esigenze, che variano da persona a persona.

Una nuova formulazione galenica per una maggiore biodisponibilità
La vitamina D3 è naturalmente una vitamina liposolubile, cioè solubili nei grassi. Sebbene la forma secca mostri una reale attività, è stato osservato in molti utilizzatori che la forma oleosa veniva meglio assorbita ed era più biodisponibile quando si utilizzava un carrier lipidico. Esami del sangue comparativi hanno mostrato, nei soggetti che hanno usato entrambe le forme, un incremento significativo dei livelli di 25(OH)D3 a favore della forma oleosa. Abbiamo quindi optato per questo miglioramento della vitamina D3 5000 UI, in modo che ognuno possa scegliere il dosaggio e la forma desiderati.

 

 

Le Innovazioni della Medicina Cellulare nella Ricerca Oncologica

 

Medicina Cellulare

L'approccio pionieristico del Dr. Matthias Rath nell'ambito della medicina a livello cellulare si è rivelato di successo nella ricerca di metodi naturali per correggere le disfunzioni metaboliche di diverse malattie croniche.
Questo approccio fornisce le basi per sviluppare la possibilità di circoscrivere la progressione di una patologia tumorale e la formazione di metastasi mediante vitamine e altri nutrienti cellulari essenziali naturali.
La medicina cellulare sfrutta la sinergia di nutrienti cellulari essenziali per il controllo della crescita e della diffusione del cancro, i quali hanno un ruolo significativo per la sopravvivenza delle persone.
Un manoscritto del Dr. Rath pubblicato nel 1992 poneva l’accento sull'importanza della lisina e della vitamina C. Questi due nutrienti cellulari essenziali possono inibire l’indebolimento della matrice extracellulare ed essere decisivi nel controllo dell'invasione delle cellule cancerose nel corpo.
Successivi studi scientifici hanno scoperto il ruolo di un'associazione di nutrienti cellulari essenziali che arginano efficacemente l’attività degli enzimi (MMP) e arrestano la penetrazione di cellule cancerose nel tessuto.
La lisina è un bloccante naturale della digestione del collagene, inibisce gli enzimi che assimilano il collagene, responsabili della dissoluzione del collagene e di altri componenti della matrice cellulare.
Potenziamento naturale e costruzione di una matrice extracellulare sana
: un'ottima struttura e produzione di collagene e di altri componenti della matrice extracellulare sono decisivi per la stabilità del metabolismo cellulare e per la crescita controllata della cellula. La vitamina C è importante per la produzione e la strutturazione del collagene.
Questo nutriente cellulare essenziale funge da potente antiossidante, poiché intercetta i radicali liberi e protegge le strutture della cellula contro i danni. Gli amminoacidi lisina e prolina sono gli elementi fondamentali del collagene e costituiscono circa un terzo di tutti gli amminoacidi presenti in quest'ultimo.
L'idrossilazione dipendente da vitamina C di questi amminoacidi è decisivo per il mantenimento della formazione ideale del collagene.
Distruzione selettiva naturale delle cellule cancerose: molti nutrienti cellulari essenziali sono in grado di indurre la morte programmata (apoptosi) delle cellule cancerose. Si comportano come veleni cancerogeni selettivi che però non compromettono le cellule sane.
L'esempio più noto e più studiato è la vitamina C e i suoi derivati, come l’ascorbilpalmitato.
Impedimento della formazione di vasi sanguigni nei tumori: un tumore con un diametro superiore a 0,5 mm non ha alcuna chance di sopravvivenza se non sviluppa un sistema circolatorio autonomo attraverso cui procurarsi le sostanze nutritive ed eliminare i prodotti di rifiuto del metabolismo. I nuovi vasi sanguigni derivano dalle cellule endoteliali che si spostano e moltiplicano per costruire una nuova struttura.
Per mettere in atto questo processo (angiogenesi) le cellule cancerose secernono fattori di crescita endoteliali vascolari che portano alla crescita di nuovi vasi sanguigni.
I nutrienti cellulari essenziali come vitamina C, lisina, prolina ed epigallocatechingallato possono regolare entrambi i processi che rivestono una grande importanza nella formazione di nuovi vasi sanguigni nel tumore.

 

 

 

 

Le Bacche di Goji

Chiamato “il Frutto della Longevità”, il Goji è considerato un potente integratore naturale che rafforza il nostro sistema immunitario. Per migliaia di anni questo frutto è stato amato e coltivato dalle popolazioni del Tibet e dell’ Himalaya, oggi le Bacche di Goji vengono considerate da esperti in tutto il mondo tra le fonti di cibo naturale più ricche di antiossidanti esistente sulla terra.

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Lycium Barbarum o più comunemente Bacche di Goji crescono spontaneamente nelle valli Himalayane, della Mongolia, del Tibet e nelle province della Cina dello Xinjiang e del Ningxia e considerate in tutto l’Oriente una potente risorsa anti-invecchiamento.

 

 

 Caffè Verde

Le varietà di caffe sono numerose (circa 60) e la Coffea arabica L. contenuta nel prodotto è tra le specie più pregiate e rinomate. Nel caffè verde, cioè nel chicco di caffè al momento della raccolta, il contenuto in composti fenolici è rilevante e l’acido clorogenico rappresenta la sostanza predominante (costituisce infatti il 5-10% del totale). Dopo la fermentazione e la tostatura, il contenuto residuo di acido clorogenico scende all’1-5%. L’acido clorogenico è l’estere dell’acido caffeico con l’acido chinico e ha riscosso particolare interesse in campo nutrizionale; è stato studiato per le sue proprietà antiossidanti, antibatteriche e antivirali e, in generale, per attività potenzialmente preventive nei confronti di diabete 2, malattie tumorali e cardiovascolari. Studi recenti mostrano anche come il consumo di caffè verde sia in grado di produrre effetti antipertensivi in vivo e nell’uomo, miglioramenti nella vasoreattività umana, effetti inibitori sull’accumulo di lipidi e peso corporeo e di modulazione del metabolismo del glucosio nell’uomo.

 

Effetti su glicemia e massa grassa


Secondo gli studi più recenti, l’acido clorogenico è in grado di ridurre l’assorbimento degli zuccheri da parte dell’intestino e di velocizzare il metabolismo, accelerando il naturale processo mediante il quale il nostro organismo brucia i grassi accumulati. Dati in vitro suggeriscono che l’acido clorogenico e il suo metabolita, l’acido caffeico, siano in grado di inibire le concentrazioni di amilasi, effetto che a livello gastrointestinale provoca la riduzione dell’assorbimento di glucosio dagli amidi, diminuendo l’apporto calorico (de Sottillo et al., 2006). Sempre in vitro l’acido clorogenico ha mostrato di ritardare l’assorbimento di lipidi nell’intestino e di attivare il metabolismo dei grassi nel fegato.
In modelli animali è stato dimostrato che il consumo di caffè verde è in grado di ostacolare l’aumento del peso corporeo e l’accumulo di grasso viscerale. Altri esperimenti su animali suggeriscono che questo fenolo sia in grado di mediare gli effetti antiobesità verosimilmente inibendo l’accumulo di trigliceridi epatici (Shimoda et al., 2006). Altri Autori postulano che l’effetto antiobesità dell’acido clorogenico sia il risultato della mediazione tra livello plasmatico di adipochina e distribuzione del grasso corporeo, oltre alla regolazione della sintesi di acidi grassi e colesterolo. In uno studio clinico di 12 settimane su 30 soggetti in sovrappeso o obesi, è stato osservato l’effetto del caffè arricchito con acidi clorogenici su assorbimento di glucosio e massa corporea. La perdita di massa nel gruppo che aveva assunto l’acido clorogenico è stata di 5.4 kg contro 1.7 kg del gruppo del caffè normale. Lo studio indica che l’acido clorogenico, per l’effetto sull’assorbimento e l’uso del glucosio, può produrre una consistente riduzione di massa corporea e massa grassa (Thom, 2007). In una rassegna (Onakpoya et al., 2010) è stato valutato l’effetto dell’assunzione di caffè verde nella riduzione del peso corporeo. In 3 studi RCT, con 142 partecipanti, è stata osservata una significativa differenza statistica nel peso corporeo tra i consumatoridi caffè verde e placebo. In un recente studio (Vinson et al., 2012) è stato valutato l’effetto della somministrazione di acido clorogenico in 16 soggetti  22-26enni in sovrappeso. Ai partecipanti sono stati somministrati giornalmente, alternando, un dosaggio basso di estratto di caffè verde (700 mg), un dosaggio alto (1.050 mg) o un placebo. Al termine delle 22 settimane dello studio, i partecipanti che avevano assunto il dosaggio più alto hanno mostrato una perdita di peso media di 7.7 kg, con una riduzione del 10.5% del peso corporeo totale e del 16% della massa grassa. E precisamente: in 10 dei 16 partecipanti è stato osservato il 10% della perdita di peso, in 5 il 5% e in 1 il 4%. Un dato interessante: all’inizio dello studio tutti i soggetti erano classificati in sovrappeso, mentre al termine 6 avevano un indice di massa corporea e un peso normali.

 

Ipertensione

L’acido clorogenico, grazie all’azione antiossidante, può migliorare la biodisponibilità di ossido nitrico favorendo il miglioramento della disfunzione endoteliale e dell’ipertrofia vascolare (Suzuki A et al., 2008). Sono documentati effetti antipertensivi sia in vivo che nell’uomo in seguito alla somministrazione di acido clorogenico. In uno studio (Watanabe et al., 2006) la somministrazione di caffè verde (140 mg/die) ha mostrato efficacia nella riduzione della pressione sanguigna in 28 soggetti con ipertensione leggera.

 

Check the top benefits of dietary fiber:

1) Your heart.

Studies have shown that high fiber intake, 5 servings of fruits and vegetables per day, may prevent heart disease.

2) Cancer Prevention.

Studies have shown that fiber increases how quickly food is passed through the digestive tract, which may protect against some types of cancer. Namely, colon cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer and uterine cancer.

3) Lowering Cholesterol.

Fiber binds with cholesterol during digestion and prevents it from being absorbed and clogging the arteries. This lowers bad cholesterol (LDL's) in the blood.

4) Gallstones and Kidney Stone Prevention.

Fiber is known to prevent large amounts of insulin from entering the bloodstream during digestion, which is a leading contributor to the creation of gallstones and kidney stones.

5) Promoting Healthy Skin.

Fiber is essential in ridding the body of toxins which directly affects the health of your skin. By ingesting roughage, such as leafy vegetables, fiber binds with cholesterol and its rough texture helps rid your intestines of toxic material that could otherwise be left behind. Toxins can affect the entire body, but is most obvious in the skin. Healthy skin is the result of good blood flow when toxins are cleared from your system.

6) Preventing Stroke.

Studies show that increasing fiber in the diet lowers the risk of stroke. According to the American Heart Association, a total of 25 grams of fiber should be consumed each day. Fiber can be found in produce (fruits and vegetables and whole grains).

7) Weight Management.

With proper nutrition, hunger can be regulated and slowed. Eating whole grains with more fruits and vegetables causes the body to feel full quickly. By introducing more fiber into the diet, hunger is regulated naturally and prevents obesity.

8) Regulates Bowels.

The carcinogens in the intestine bind to the fiber, creating bulk to the stool, which keeps waste moving properly through the digestive tract. By incorporating fiber into the daily diet, constipation may be prevented in addition to hemorrhoids. Without leaving residue as waste passes through the intestine, the flow of fiber helps to lessen the risk of colon cancer, as well as regulating bowel movements.

9) Increases Energy?

Some foods and dietary supplements tout fiber as an energy source. This is a myth. Fiber is a form of indigestable carbohydrates that derive from foods such as grains. There are no calories and fiber does not produce energy on its own.

10) Helps with Diabetes.

Fruits and vegetables help regulate blood sugar, which is the key in preventing diabetes. For people who live with the condition, fiber can alter the recommended dosage of medication (insulin).

 

 

Vitamina C

  Taking antixodant vitamins for a long term may help prevent breast cancer, according to a study published in the Aug 24, 2011 issue of BMC Cancer. The study led by S.Y. Pan of Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada and colleagues showed that premenopausal women who had taken zinc supplements for 10 years or longer were 54 percent less likely to develop breast cancer, compared to those who had not. The study also showed that supplementation of multivitamin, beta-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc for 10 or more years was associated with 26, 42, 21, 25, and 53 percent reduced risk of breast cancer, respectively, in postmenopausal women. On the other hand, dietary antioxidants including beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium and zinc or supplementation of antioxidants for less than 10 years were not associated with reduced risk of developing breast cancer.

 

Vitamina C e cancro del pancreas

Ascorbate (ascorbic acid, vitamin C) is one of the early, unorthodox treatments for cancer. The evidence upon which people base the use of ascorbate in cancer treatment falls into two categories: clinical data on dose concentration relationships, and laboratory data describing potential cell toxicity with high concentrations of ascorbate in vitro. Clinical data show that when ascorbate is given orally, fasting plasma concentrations are tightly controlled by decreased absorption, increased urine excretion, and reduced ascorbate bioavailability. In contrast, when ascorbate is administered intravenously, concentrations in the millimolar level are achieved. Thus, it is clear that intravenous administration of ascorbate can yield very high plasma levels, while oral treatment does not.

Pharmacological ascorbate selectively kills some cancer cell types including pancreatic cancer. Cell death is dependent on H2O2 formation. H2O2 generation is dependent on ascorbate concentration and incubation time, and displays a linear relationship with ascorbate radical formation, ascorbate being the electron-donor. Thus, pharmacological ascorbate concentrations produce extracellular H2O2, which diffuses into cells causing cell death via oxidative stress. The role of autophagy in cellular responses to oxidative stress is as yet unclear. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), like H2O2, can induce autophagy, which may contribute to cell death. In contrast, autophagy may play a protective role of in ROS-mediated necrosis.

Our recent study suggests that ascorbate may lead to death through a unique caspase-independent autophagy pathway. Autophagy is characterized by accumulation of autophagosomes that fuse with lysosomes to form autolysosomes. Activation of this pathway can be detected by the processing of LC3 to the lipidated form referred to LC3-II. Pancreatic cancer cells treated with ascorbate demonstrate an increase in LC3-II immunoreactive protein. This increase in LC3-II is reversed by pretreatment of the cells with catalase....
 

 

 

Prostate cancer

 Cancer specialists are bracing themselves for publication of a research study that will challenge the way one of the commonest cancers is treated. The world's biggest randomised trial of prostate cancer has found that the standard surgical treatment for the disease is ineffective.

The study compared surgical removal of the prostate gland – radical prostatectomy – with "watchful waiting" (doing nothing). The results show that surgery did not extend life. A leading British specialist, who asked not to be named, said: "The only rational response to these results is, when presented with a patient with prostate cancer, to do nothing."

Cancer of the prostate is the commonest male cancer affecting 37,000 men a year in the UK and causing 10,000 deaths.

But in up to 50 per cent of cases it is slow-growing so that patients affected, even when left untreated, can live for many years and die of something else.

Some specialists are beginning to question whether these cases qualify for the label "cancer" at all.

The results of the Prostate Intervention Versus Observation Trial (PIVOT), led by Timothy Wilt and started in 1994 with 731 men, showed that those who underwent the operation had less than a three per cent survival benefit compared with those who had no treatment, after being followed up for 12 years. The difference was not statistically significant and could have arisen by chance.

When the findings were presented at a meeting of the European Association of Urology in Paris in February, attended by 11,000 specialists from around the world, they were greeted with a stunned silence.

One expert who attended the meeting said that while most research results are immediately transmitted by specialists in the audience using social media, "I did not see any urologists enthusiastically tweeting about [this one]."

Prostate cancers are already classified as "tigers" (aggressive) or "pussy cats" (low risk). But some urologists who have spent years training to perform complex surgical techniques find the idea of watchful waiting unacceptable.

Surgery carries a risk of side effects that can have a serious impact on quality of life with 50 per cent of men suffering impotence and 10 per cent incontinence.

Ben Challacombe, consultant urologist at Guys and St Thomas' NHS Trust, disagreed with the analysis that the response should be to do nothing. Many of the men in the trial were older, with an average age of 67, low risk and would not have been offered surgery in the UK.

"We would offer milder treatment such as radiotherapy or watchful waiting. We are better than the US in putting men on surveillance," he said.

The controversy over the best treatment for prostate cancer has split professional opinion. Some specialists claim treatment is at the stage where breast cancer was a generation ago when the only surgical treatment was mastectomy, removal of the whole breast.

Today most women with breast cancer are treated with lumpectomy, involving surgical removal of the tumour, leaving the rest of the breast intact. Urologists believe a similar approach in prostate cancer could improve survival and reduce the risk of side effects because a smaller proportion of the prostate gland would be targeted and surrounding tissue left unaffected.

Critics of the approach say there is not enough evidence to justify targeted therapy. Joel Nelson, of the department of urology at the University of Pittsburgh, said prostate cancer triggers molecular changes in the whole of the gland, which can lead to "malignant transformation".

Targeting only part of the gland gives a "false sense of security", when there is a risk of recurrence which could be harder to treat, Mr Nelson said. There are no clear criteria of success which could lead to "technical incompetence".

Dr Kate Holmes, head of research at The Prostate Cancer Charity, said: "Early data from the PIVOT trial certainly suggests that surgery to remove the prostate does not provide any significant survival benefit for men with low to medium risk prostate cancer. However, these findings are from a large ongoing trial, and we look forward to seeing the full published results which could help men in future to make more informed decisions about treatment. "

Facts

37,000 The number of British men newly diagnosed with prostate cancer every year

50% The rise in the number of men diagnosed with the condition in the last 20 years

10,000 The number of British men who die from prostate cancer each year

70% The proportion of men with prostate cancer who survive for at least five years

1 in 4 Prostate cancer is often considered an older man's problem, but 25 per cent of cases are in those under 65

 

Diet...first step of therapy

 Men who had been treated with surgery or radiotherapy for the disease were given a capsule containing essence of pomegranate, green tea, turmeric and broccoli.

At the end of a six-month trial, their PSA levels - a protein which is an indicator of the cancer - were 63 per cent lower than those who took a placebo.

While lab tests and small non-randomised studies have previously suggested that such foods, which are rich in polyphenol, have an anti-cancer effect, the British study is the first to demonstrate such an impact on sufferers of prostate cancer, compared with those who were not given the capsules.

Prof Robert Thomas, a consultant oncologist at Bedford Hospital and Addenbrooke’s Hospital in Cambridge will present the results of the “Pomi-T” study at the American Society of Clinical Ontology in Chicago today.

Diets rich in polyphenols, the natural plant-based phytochemicals found in healthy foods, have been linked with lower risks of chronic illnesses such as dementia, high cholesterol, arthritis, heart disease, skin aging and macular degeneration.

Studies have also linked their regular intake with lower risks of many cancers including breast, pancreatic, oesophageal, ovarian, prostate, and skin cancer.

Research has also found that breast cancer survivors eating polyphenol-rich fruit, vegetables, soy and green tea were found to have lower relapse rates.

The anti-cancer effect of polyphenols works because of their anti-oxidant properties, which protect the DNA from oxidative damage from carcinogens. The substances also work by killing cancer cells and inhibiting their proliferation.

Professor Thomas said: “Our experience in offering high-quality clinical care, collaboration with cancer charities and world-class research with the University of Cambridge has resulted in findings which will have an world-wide impact.

"We hope this will help millions of men to help combat the onset of prostate cancer.

The study found virtually no adverse affects among the group who were given the supplement.

Because of the lowered PSA levels among those given the capsule significantly fewer men proceeded to potentially toxic therapies at the end of the study, the study said.

“Healthy eating and lifestyle is the main way of helping to combat the development of cancer but men can now also turn to a whole food supplement which has been shown to work,” said Prof Thomas.

 

 

 

 

 

Check these top "superfoods" against prostate cancer:

Green Tea Polyphenols

The glyco-protein secreted by the prostate gland, called prostate-specific antigen (PSA), is the most clinically used marker in the detection of prostate cancer. The level of PSA serum is reduced by agents that lower the level of testosterone. Such agents include leutenizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists, antagonists and anti-androgens, as well as 5a-reductase inhibitors.

Green tea is considered a "superfood" against this type of cancer, because its polyphenol content is capable of decreasing PSA levels in human prostate cancer cells in a culture medium. The effect of the moderately water-soluble polyphenols on PSA levels is dose-dependent. Additionally, its constituent, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), also contributes to its efficacy against prostate and other forms of cancer.

Curcumin in Turmeric

Curcumin is a natural carotenoid and polyphenol which may be isolated from Curcuma longa or turmeric, a rhizome. Owing to their structure, carotenoids are scavengers of free radicals, which make them great anti-oxidants and boosters of the immune system of vertebrates, humans included. Curcumin is also an effective anti-bacterial and anti-carcinogenic. Studies have demonstrated that curcumin inhibits the growth of a number of tumors when used in combination with radiation therapy. In prostate cancer, curcumin overcomes the effect of prosurvival gene expression induced by the exposure of cancer cells to radiation.

Tomato and Broccoli: The Phytochemical-Polyphenol Tandem

Although the Canene-Adams, et al. study was performed in rats, the results are encouraging, because tomato alone and broccoli alone reduced the tumor growth by only 34% and 42%, respectively. However, when tomato and broccoli were combined in diet, proliferation of tumor decreased by 52%. This finding provided scaffold to earlier recommendations from public health authorities to increase their intake of nutrients from a variety of plant sources. In this respect, combining tomato and broccoli produced a synergistic effect in combating prostate cancer.

Nature's Way Saves the Day

In conclusion, green tea, turmeric, tomatoes and broccoli are the top "superfoods" proven to fight prostate cancer. There are also other foods that work against prostate cancer including pomegranate and juice from the fruit; other cruciferous vegetables such as Brussels sprouts, bok choy or Chinese cabbage and cauliflower; and soybean. Research methods have been modernized, but today's scientists are going back to naturals, glamorized as "superfoods", for succor against disease. Indeed, the power of food plants over prostate cancer emphasizes the value of nature in man's fight for good health and long life.

 

 

 Natural therapy for Cardiovascular diseases

Researchers from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University have concluded that your intake of lycopene is associated with a 17 percent risk reduction for developing cardiovascular disease.

To reach this conclusion, researchers analyzed data from the Framingham Offspring Study over a 10-year period, which included detailed lycopene intake. Lycopene is found in tomatoes. It is more available from cooked tomatoes, since cooking helps liberate the lycopene from tomato fiber, making it easier to absorb. Highly purified natural sources of lycopene, which are found in some lycopene dietary supplements, are the easiest way to ensure high lycopene intake.

Like other carotenes, lycopene is highly protective to human health. It is associated with significant protection for the prostate as well as for skin. When you regularly consume carotenes such as lycopene, they slowly and surely deposit in body tissues that use them for protection. If you don’t consume them then your supply is slowly and surely depleted from body tissues, leaving you more vulnerable to health problems.

As the authors conclude, “The present study of lycopene intake and cardiovascular disease risk provides supporting evidence for an inverse association between lycopene and cardiovascular disease risk.”

 

The Anti-Aging properties of Limonene

One of the classic markers of aging is the hardening of physical structure with sugar. This is a primary cause of accelerated aging in overweight and diabetic individuals. A new study shows that d-limonene offers powerful protection against this type of sugar-induced damage.

The formation of Advanced Glycation End-products (AGEs) means that sugar is cementing proteins in abnormal ways, in essence rendering protein structures abnormal. A new study has shown that limonene can inhibit the formation of AGEs up to 75 percent. It was found that limonene was able to bind to proteins in a way that blocked sugar from inducing AGEs. The net result was that the protein structure stayed normal.

The ability to keep proteins in a normal state of structure is of the greatest importance in preserving health. The diseases of aging are associated with excessive amounts of damaged and misfolded proteins that overload pathways involved with the clearance of “trash.” The build of trash is invariably associated with the symptoms of toxicity, as the lymph system is congested by too much damaged protein. 

Various nutrients such as carnosine, r-alpha lipoic acid, tocotrienol E, and fisetin have also demonstrated the ability to reduce AGEs. The mechanism of limonene action in reducing AGEs is unique, offering another tool to help combat the health decline typically associated with aging.

 

Cancer Realities

Everyone has cancer sells in their body. Unfortunately, they don’t show up on tests until they have incredibly multiplied.

Then what happens? The MDs give us chemo and radiation, which kills our immune systems and makes us vulnerable to all sorts of horrors. This is followed by the guy in his little white coat, putting on his most professional face, and telling us that there are no more cancer cells in our body. Riiiiiiiight!

What he is really saying is that the tests we were subjected to are unable to detect cancer cells because they have not reached the detectable size.

So, now what? Do we accept his bullshit and live another five years before we die of cancer or do we try to figure it out our selves?

If we have a strong immune system and unless we have some heavy karma, our immune system will destroy cancer cells and prevent them from multiplying and forming tumors.

If cancer cells do manifest, multiply and grow, our bodies are telling us we need to take a better look at ourselves and seriously think about making changes nutritionally, and take a closer look at our lifestyles.

Yes, chemo and radiation may temporarily poison the cancer cells but will alter healthy cells in the process as well, leaving scars and damage and inhibiting their disease-fighting capacity.

Initially, the chemo and radiation might reduce the tumor size, but that continued “therapy” does not necessarily result in more tumor destruction. In fact, it may very likely cause the cancer cells to mutate and become more resistant and harder to kill. Should we go the surgery route, that could cause the cancer cells to spread to other areas in the body.

So, we have to figure out a way to starve cancer cells. The best way to do that is to deprive them of the foods that they love.

Okay, what do they love? For openers, they love sugar. If you cut off their sugar supply you cut off one of their most important stimulants. No, you do not want to go to artificial sweeteners like aspartame, sucralose, Nutrasweet, Equal, Spoonful or any crap like that because they are all neurotoxins that will screw up your brain. In fact, sucralose, aka Splenda, is produced from chlorine, which is better left in the swimming pool than in your brain.

Cancer cells also feed off of mucus. Guess what creates mucus? Yep – milk products. So, if you cut off the mucus supply and substitute milk, which additionally contains cancer-causing bovine growth hormones, GMOs, because the cows are fed GMO cornmeal, and is pasteurized to death killing all nutrients, with rice, almond, soy (organic) and/or hemp milk, you will again starve the cancer cells.

The body can function in two environments – acidity and alkalinity. Acid eats away and alkalinity induces harmony.

Cancer cells love an acidic environment. So, if your diet is comprised of anything that has a face or a mother, you are helping the cancer to flourish. Meat contains huge amounts of antibiotics, growth hormones, and parasites. Fish contain huge amounts of mercury, radiation, heavy metals from the industrial waste dumped into the rivers that flow to the ocean, and PCBs. Chicken is the filthiest. In fact, it is documented that the USDA said as long as you cannot see the doo-doo through the clear wrap, chicken is okay to sell. After all, all these toxins, poisons, and chemicals store in the muscle tissue, which is precisely that which is eaten. Besides, flesh protein is difficult to digest and require lots of digestive enzymes, which have already been killed through high heat cooking.

To obtain alkalinity, a diet centered around fresh vegetables, fresh squeezed juices, fruits, whole grains, nuts, and seeds, achieves that end. The best is 80% raw and 20% cooked in the form of beans and legumes to obtain the highest in live enzymes that are easily absorbed and nourish the cells in as little as 15 minutes after ingestion. Keep in mind that enzymes are destroyed at 104 degrees. That’s another reason to avoid processed foods that are simply designed to increase shelf life and not provide nutrition.

As far as drinking liquids are concerned, purified or filtered water and fresh juices are the best, whereas caffeine sucks. And, distilled water is acidic. What’s really good for the body is wheatgrass juice. If it’s hard to buy, it’s easy to grow.

Get a planting tray, some planting soil and a large jar. Soak some wheat berries (found in natural food stores) in the jar. When the seeds begin to sprout lay them on the soil in the tray and add some of the soaking water. Then put the tray in a dark garbage bag and put in a dark place. After a couple of days or so you will see what looks like grass growing. At that point, put the tray in indirect sunlight. This will enable the chlorophyll to manifest. When the grass is about 5 – 6 inches high, cut some off with a scissors and chew it until you sucked out all the chlorophyll. You can repeat this process as often as you like, as chlorophyll is an incredible healer. Go through one complete tray cutting before repeating the sprouting process.

Cancer cells are covered by a dense protein. When you consume alkalinity instead of acidity, the enzymes can more easily attack the cancer cells and kill them.

Obviously, there are supplements out them that help the process and you can get better advice for that from the natural food stores as their supplements are more natural.

Mind-set also plays a significant role with cancer. Anger, hostility, bitterness, unforgiveness, envy, etc. are cancer cell’s allies. Change the way you are and become softer, more forgiving, more tolerant, and laid back and it will a profound effect on your health.

Last but not least, cancer cells CANNOT survive in an oxygenated environment. Yes, organic sulfur crystals have come to the rescue of thousands with cancer as well as detoxing the heavy metals, radiation, PCBs. And the glyphosate toxicity from GMOs.

 

Glutamine

Glutamine is an amino acid best known for its role in supporting digestive health. A variety of recent studies indicate that it plays an important role in rejuvenating body tissue. This is a general anti-wear and tear, anti-aging role for glutamine.

Glutamine is the primary amino acid that composes the lining of your digestive tract. When lacking, the digestive tract is much more prone to inflammation and leakiness due to impaired structure of the tight junctions between digestive cells. Numerous studies over the years have demonstrated the ability of glutamine to improve digestive health. The most recent study once again demonstrates that glutamine supplementation prevents digestive inflammation, atrophy of digestive tissue, scar tissue damage in the digestive lining, and disintegration of tight junctions. Clearly, glutamine is vital for maintaining the integrity of the digestive lining.

Under normal circumstances glutamic acid from the proteins you eat is digested and absorbed. Once absorbed glutamic acid is broken down to glutamine, where it can travel back to the digestive tract for nutritional needs. Problems with glutamine status can occur for several reasons. If the digestive tract is already inflamed then the process of absorbing glutamic acid and sending it back to the digestive tract may not be efficient or able to keep up with the demand. By taking glutamine the needed nutrient can directly reach the digestive tract, bypassing the need to digest glutamic acid.

Glutamine is present in large amounts in your blood, and is the only amino acid that is considered non-toxic in such large amounts. Your primary reservoir for glutamine in your body is your muscles.

Under conditions of inflammatory stress, glutamine is mobilized into action. It is the critical nutrient required by all rapidly dividing cells, such as immune cells or cells relating to tissue healing. Its unique structure enables it to act as both a building material and regulator of inflammation. It also enhances the competence of immune cells.

The scientific community has been fascinated with glutamine for wound healing, sepsis, acute illness, burn recovery, and other forms of significant trauma. Glutamine need rises rather dramatically in response to acute trauma. Your muscles will provide it, leading to muscle tissue breakdown. Obviously, supplementing with glutamine will help alleviate the need to break down muscle tissue to provide glutamine for urgent healing or immune-defense needs, thereby assisting the healing response.

I believe there is a much larger role for glutamine as an anti-wear-and-tear nutrient – a type of anti-aging and fitness promotion use. We know the need for glutamine rises in direct response to inflammation. Thus, if a person is in a wear and tear trend and unable to get on top of the issue (adrenal fatigue, chronic aches and pains, lack of fitness), then supplemental glutamine is likely to help.

Your muscles are another key indicator. Are they strong and fit, readily responding to exercise? Or are they out of shape and hard to condition even with exercise? The more they are the latter the more glutamine is likely to help. 

And of course, if you have ongoing digestive problems, it is almost certain that you have the problems mentioned in the two preceding paragraphs. Glutamine is likely to help your digestion as well. 

Even if you lack noticeable problems, glutamine is an excellent nutrient if you engage in strenuous exercise since it enhances recovery and prevents immune suppression.

Many of the recent articles on glutamine support the idea that it is a superior protective and recovery nutrient. It is able to maintain the healthy function of the endothelial cells that line your circulatory system, a factor that has recently been found essential for the generation of new body tissues. It powerfully helps maintain antioxidant status within the circulation during inflammation, stabilizing the function of endothelial cells. It can protect the bladder from radiation injury during prostate treatment, indicating it can generally protect body tissue from radiation damage. It was also shown to stimulate muscle synthesis and prevent muscle breakdown in diabetic animals (muscle loss is a key problem of diabetic individuals). It was even shown to significantly enhance brain growth of preterm babies, making a huge difference in their future intelligence. 

Collectively these studies support the protective and rejuvenation properties of glutamine, especially to offset issues of high stress. One way to view this is to say that glutamine is the main amino acid that acts as a buffer against any type of stress.

In its powder form, supplemental glutamine can be added to a whey protein drink or consumed on its own mixed in water. Nutritionally supportive doses of glutamine range from 3,000 – 9,000 mg per day; higher doses offset higher demands.

 

Guyabano – The Miracle Fruit

“Guyabano”…The Miracle Fruit

The Sour Sop or the fruit from the graviola tree is a miraculous natural cancer cell killer 10,000 times stronger than Chemo ..

Why are we not aware of this? Its because some big corporation want to make back their money spent on years of research by trying to make a synthetic version of it for sale.

So, since you know it now you can help a friend in need by letting him know or just drink some sour sop juice yourself as a prevention from time to time. The taste is not bad afterall. Its completely natural and definitely has no side effects. If you have the space plant one in your garden.

The other parts of the tree are also useful.

The next time you have a fruit juice, ask for a sour sop.

shfoong: guyabano.

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……….. How many people died in vain while this billion-dollar
drug maker concealed the secret of the miraculous Graviola tree?

If there ever was a single example that makes it dramatically clear why the existence of Health Sciences Institute is so vital to Americans like you, it’s the incredible story behind the Graviola tree.

The truth is stunningly simple: Deep within the Amazon
Rainforest grows a tree that could literally revolutionize what you, your doctor, and the rest of the world thinks about cancer treatment and chances of survival. The future has never looked more promising..

Research shows that with extracts from this miraculous tree it now may be possible to….

  • Attack cancer safely and effectively with an all-natural therapy that does not cause extreme nausea, weight loss and hair loss
  • Protect your immune system and avoid deadly infections
  • Feel stronger and healthier throughout the course of the treatment
  • Boost your energy and improve your outlook on life

The source of this information is just as stunning: It comes from one of America ‘s largest drug manufacturers, the fruit of over 20 laboratory tests conducted since the 1970′s! What those tests revealed was nothing short of mind numbing… Extracts from the tree were shown to:

  • Effectively target and kill malignant cells in 12 types of cancer, including colon, breast, prostate, lung and pancreatic cancer.
  • The tree compounds proved to be up to 10,000 times stronger in slowing the growth of cancer cells than Adriamycin, a commonly used chemotherapeutic drug!
  • What’s more, unlike chemotherapy, the compound extracted from the Graviola tree selectivelyhunts down and kills only cancer cells. It does not harm healthy cells!

The amazing anti-cancer properties of the Graviola tree have been extensively researched–so why haven’t you heard anything about it? If Graviola extract is as half as promising as it appears to be–why doesn’t every single oncologist at every major hospital insist on using it on all his or her patients?

The spine-chilling answer illustrates just how easily our health–and for many, our very lives(!)–are controlled by money and power.

Graviola–the plant that worked too well

One of America ‘s biggest billion-dollar drug makers began a search for a cancer cure and their research centered on Graviola, a legendary healing tree from the Amazon Rainforest.

Various parts of the Graviola tree–including the bark, leaves, roots, fruit and fruit-seeds–have been used for centuries by medicine men and native Indians in South America to treat heart disease, asthma, liver problems and arthritis. Going on very little documented scientific evidence, the company poured money and resources into testing the tree’s anti-cancerous properties–and were shocked by the results. Graviola proved itself to be a cancer-killing dynamo.

But that’s where the Graviola story nearly ended.

The company had one huge problem with the Graviola tree–it’s completely natural, and so, under federal law, not patentable. There’s no way to make serious profits from it.

It turns out the drug company invested nearly seven years trying to
synthesize two of the Graviola tree’s most powerful anti-cancer ingredients. If they could isolate and produce man-made clones of what makes the Graviola so potent, they’d be able to patent it and make their money back. Alas, they hit a brick wall. The original simply could not be replicated. There was no way the company could protect its profits–or even make back the millions it poured into research.

As the dream of huge profits evaporated, their testing on Graviola came to a screeching halt. Even worse, the company shelved the entire project and chose not to publish the findings of its research!

Luckily, however, there was one scientist from the Graviola research team whose conscience wouldn’t let him see such atrocity committed. Risking his career, he contacted a company that’s dedicated to harvesting medical plants from the Amazon Rainforest and blew the whistle.

Miracle unleashed

When researchers at the Health Sciences Institute were alerted to the news of Graviola, they began tracking the research done on the cancer-killing tree. Evidence of the astounding effectiveness of Graviola–and its shocking cover-up–came in fast and furious….

….The National Cancer Institute performed the first scientific research in 1976. The results showed that Graviola’s “leaves and stems were found effective in attacking and destroying malignant cells.” Inexplicably, the results were published in an internal report and never released to the public…

…Since 1976, Graviola has proven to be an immensely potent cancer killer in 20 independent laboratory tests, yet no double-blind clinical trials–the typical benchmark mainstream doctors and journals use to judge a
treatment’s value–were ever initiated…

….A study published in the Journal of Natural Products, following a recent study conducted at Catholic University of South Korea stated that one chemical in Graviola was found to selectively kill colon cancer cells at “10,000 times the potency of (the commonly used chemotherapy drug) Adriamycin…”

….The most significant part of the Catholic University of South Korea report is that Graviola was shown to selectively target the cancer cells, leaving healthy cells untouched. Unlike chemotherapy, which indiscriminately targets all actively reproducing cells (such as stomach and hair cells), causing the often devastating side effects of nausea and hair loss in cancer patients.

…A study at Purdue University recently found that leaves from the Graviola tree killed cancer cells among six human cell lines and were especially effective against prostate, pancreatic and lung
cancers…
Seven years of silence broken–it’s finally here!

A limited supply of Graviola extract, grown and harvested by indigenous people in Brazil , is finally available in America .

The full Graviola story–including where you can get it and how to use it–is included in Beyond Chemotherapy: New Cancer Killers, Safe as Mother’s Milk, a Health Sciences Institute FREE special bonus report on natural substances that will effectively revolutionize the fight against cancer.
This crucial report (along with five more FREE reports) is yours ABSOLUTELY FREE with a new membership to the Health Sciences Institute. It’s just one example of how absolutely vital each report from the Institute can be to your life and those of your loved ones.

From breakthrough cancer and
heart research and revolutionary Amazon Rainforest herbology to world-leading anti-aging research and nutritional medicine, every monthly Health Sciences Institute Member’s Alert puts in your hands today cures the rest of America –including your own doctor(!)–is likely to find out only ten years from now.

 

Blueberry-induced changes in spatial working memory correlate with changes in hippocampal CREB phosphorylation and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels.

Williams CM, El Mohsenb MA, Vauzourbet D, et al.

Phytochemical-rich foods have been shown to be effective at reversing age-related deficits in memory in both animals and humans. We show that a supplementation with a blueberry diet (2% w/w) for 12 weeks improves the performance of aged animals in spatial working memory tasks. This improvement emerged within 3 weeks and persisted for the remainder of the testing period. Memory performance correlated well with the activation of cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) and increases in both pro- and mature levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus. Changes in CREB and BDNF in aged and blueberry-supplemented animals were accompanied by increases in the phosphorylation state of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK1/2), rather than that of calcium calmodulin kinase (CaKMII and CaCMKIV) or protein kinase A. Furthermore, age and blueberry supplementation were linked to increases in the activation state of Akt, mTOR, and the levels of Arc.Arg3.1 in the hippocampus, suggesting that pathways involved in de novo protein synthesis may be involved. Although causal relationships cannot be made among supplementation, behavior, and biochemical parameters, the measurement of anthocyanins and flavanols in the brain following blueberry supplementation may indicate that changes in spatial working memory in aged animals are linked to the effects of flavonoids on the ERK-CREB-BDNF pathway.

 

 

Sulforaphane inhibits growth of phenotypically different breast cancer cells.

 


Cancer development and resistance to chemotherapy correlates with aberrant activity of mitogenic pathways.

In breast cancers, pro-survival PI3K-AktmTOR-S6K1 signaling pathway is often hyperactive due to overexpression of genes coding for growth factors or estrogen receptors, constitutive activation of PI3K or Akt and loss of PTEN, a negative regulator of the pathway.

Since epidemiologic as well as rodent tumor studies indicate that sulforaphane (SFN), a constituent of many edible cruciferous vegetables, might be a potent inhibitor of mammary carcinogenesis, we analyzed the response of four breast cancer cell lines representing different abnormalities in ErbB2/ER-PI3K-AktmTOR-S6K1 signaling pathway to this compound.

Four different breast cancer cell lines were used: MDA MB 231, MCF-7, SKBR-3 and MDA MB 468. Cell viability and ultrastructure, protein synthesis, autophagy induction and phosphorylation status of Akt and S6K1 kinases upon SFN treatment were determined.


We observed that all four cell lines are similarly sensitive to SFN. SFN decreased phosphorylation of Akt and S6K1 kinases and at higher concentrations induced autophagy in all studied cell lines. Moreover, global protein synthesis was inhibited by SFN in investigated cell lines in a dose-dependent manner.


These results indicate that SFN is a potent inhibitor of the viability of breast cancer cells representing different activity of the ErbB2/ER-PI3K-AktmTOR-S6K1 pro-survival pathway and suggest that it targets downstream elements of the pathway.

 

Vitamin D Found To Stimulate A Protein That Inhibits The Growth Of Breast Cancer Cells

Feb. 5, 2009 — Calcitrol, the active form of vitamin D, has been found to induce a tumor suppressing protein that can inhibit the growth of breast cancer cells, according to a study by researcher Sylvia Chistakos, Ph.D., of the UMDNJ-New Jersey Medical School.

Chistakos, a professor of biochemistry, has published extensively on the multiple roles of vitamin D, including inhibition of the growth of malignant cells found in breast cancer. Her current findings on the vitamin D induced protein that inhibits breast cancer growth are published in a recent issue of The Journal of Biological Chemistry.

Previous research had determined that increased serum levels of vitamin D are associated with an improved diagnosis in patients with breast cancer. Prior to the current study, little was known about the factors that determine the effect of calcitrol on inhibiting breast cancer growth, she said.

During the study, Christakos and co-author Puneet Dhawan, Ph.D., examined the protein involved in the action that can reduce the growth of vitamin D in breast cancer cells. “These results provide an important process in which the active form of vitamin D may work to reduce growth of breast cancer cells,” said Christakos. “These studies provide a basis for the design of new anticancer agents that can target the protein as a candidate for breast cancer treatment.”

 

Why eat apricot kernels?

Apricot kernels are, like most nuts and seeds, very nutritious. Among the nutrients they contain is one called amygdalin, which is also known as vitamin B17. This attacks cancer cells, and thus can help prevent cancer from breaking out in our bodies.

Amygdalin (vitamin B17) is contained in many hundreds of foods, but ones that are particularly rich in amygdalin have disappeared to a large extent from our Western diet. Peoples throughout the world who still eat a traditional diet, have been found to be largely free from cancer. These diets are rich in foods containing amygdalin.

Apart from apricot kernels, examples of other amygdalin rich foods are bitter almonds (amygdalin tastes bitter - sweet almonds do not contain it, and apricot kernels that are not bitter do not contain it). Other foods containing amygdalin are apple pips, grape seeds, millet, broad beans, most berries, cassava and many other seeds, beans, pulses and grains - but not ones that have been highly hybridised (African orange pips contain some amygdalin, but American ones don't, wheat is low in amygdalin).

There are many ways you can fight cancer. One is to build up the immune system so that it is very strong. Another is to supplement with antioxidants which fight carcinogens in the body. However, amygdalin seems to be unique in the way that it directly attacks cancer cells.

Amygdalin was first extracted and named over one hundred years ago and has been listed in pharmacological dictionaries since that time as being non-toxic. However it does have a poison locked away in it - one of its constituents is cyanide. But, locked into the compound amygdalin, it is chemically inert and harmless to normal living tissue. In the same way common salt (sodium chloride) is safe to eat, and in fact is necessary to the body. But this also has locked away in it a poison - chlorine. Of course if you ate too much salt at one time you would be ill. This is true of any substance, and would equally apply to apricot kernels. However, amygdalin is less toxic than salt, and less toxic than sugar.

We are told that our bodies are creating cancer cells all the time. Normally the immune system can deal with them. However at times of stress or in a particularly weak part of the body, or under extreme or regular exposure to carcinogens, then the multiplication of cancer cells may become too great for the immune system to handle. Amygdalin comes alongside the immune system and attacks the cancer cells directly. The cancer cells have within them an enzyme which unlocks the poison in the amygdalin, and in this way the cancer cells are destroyed. Normal, healthy cells do not have this enzyme. In fact they have a different enzyme which unlocks the amygdalin in a different way and releases nutrients and also a neutralising agent which would neutralise any of the poison it came into contact with. Researchers at Imperial College London have been experimenting using cyanide to kill cancer cells, and state that any poison that escaped into the bloodstream would be quickly neutralised by the liver. (See reports in UK national newspapers of 7th September 2000).

Amygdalin is sometimes referred to as Vitamin B17 and is found in nitriloside rich fruits and plants. In its extracted, pure, concentrated form it is known as laetrile. Laetrile is used as the main therapy, but supported by other non-toxic therapies and good nutrition, in treating cancer sufferers in some clinics.

For prevention, however, Dr Ernst T Krebs Jr., the biochemist who first produced laetrile (concentrated amygdalin) in the 1950s, recommended that if a person would eat ten to twelve apricot kernels a day for life, then barring the equivalent of Chernobyl, he is likely to be cancer free. At the beginning of the 21st century it is expected that one in eight women in the UK will get breast cancer and one in nine men prostate cancer. If other types of cancer are added in, then no family is likely to be free. Therefore the suggestion that eating 10 - 12 kernels per day for life is likely to prevent cancer - is very good news indeed.

 

 

 

La causa primaria del Cancro fu scoperta nel 1931 da uno scienziato premio nobel

 

Una notizia che ha dell’incredibile: la causa principale del cancro è stata ufficialmente scoperta decenni fa (1923) da uno scienziato premio Nobel per la medicina, nel 1931.

E da allora nulla è stato fatto in base a tale conseguimento, se non continuare a raccogliere in tutto il mondo soldi per la ricerca, attraverso associazioni come, ad esempio l’italiana, AIRC.Quando la causa primaria del c ancro era già conosciuta.

Pochissime persone in tutto il mondo lo sanno, perché questo fatto è nascosto dall’industria farmaceutica e alimentare.

Nel 1931, lo scienziato tedesco Otto Heinrich Warburg ha ricevuto il Premio Noanimaltesting Nobel per la scoperta sulla causa primaria del cancro.

Proprio così. Ha trovato la causa primaria del cancro e ha vinto il Premio Nobel.

Otto ha scoperto che il cancro è il risultato di un potere anti-fisiologico e di uno stile di vita anti-fisiologico.

Perché? Poiché sia con uno stile anti-fisiologico nutrizionale (dieta basata su cibi acidificanti) e l’inattività fisica, il corpo crea un ambiente acido (nel caso di inattività, per una cattiva ossigenazione delle cellule).

L’acidosi cellulare causa l’espulsione dell’ossigeno. La mancanza di ossigeno nelle cellule crea un ambiente acido.

Egli ha detto: “La mancanza di ossigeno e l’acidità sono due facce della stessa medaglia: Se una persona ha uno, ha anche l’altro”.

Cioè, se una persona ha eccesso di acidità, quindi automaticamente avrà mancanza di ossigeno nel suo sistema. Se manca l’ossigeno, avrete acidità nel vostro corpo.

Egli ha anche detto: “Le sostanze acide respingono ossigeno, a differenza delle alcaline che attirano ossigeno”.

Cioè, un ambiente acido è un ambiente senza ossigeno.

Egli ha dichiarato: “Privando una cellula del 35% del suo ossigeno per 48 ore è possibile convertirla in un cancro”.

“Tutte le cellule normali hanno il bisogno assoluto di ossigeno, ma le cellule tumorali possono vivere senza di esso”. (Una regola senza eccezioni).

“I tessuti tumorali sono acidi, mentre i tessuti sani sono alcalini.”

Nella sua opera “Il metabolismo dei tumori”, Otto ha mostrato che tutte le forme di cancro sono caratterizzate da due condizioni fondamentali: acidosi del sangue (acido) e ipossia (mancanza di ossigeno).

Ha scoperto che le cellule tumorali sono anaerobiche (non respirano ossigeno) e non possono sopravvivere in presenza di alti livelli di ossigeno.

Le cellule tumorali possono sopravvivere soltanto con glucosio e in un ambiente privo di ossigeno.

Pertanto, il cancro non è altro che un meccanismo di difesa che hanno alcune cellule del corpo per sopravvivere in un ambiente acido e privo di ossigeno.

IN SINTESI:
Le cellule sane vivono in un ambiente ossigenato e alcalino che consente il normale funzionamento. Le cellule tumorali vivono in un ambiente acido e carente di ossigeno.

IMPORTANTE:
Una volta terminato il processo digestivo, gli alimenti, a secondo della qualità di proteine, carboidrati, grassi, vitamine e minerali, forniscono e generano una condizione di acidità o alcalinità nel corpo. In altre parole … tutto dipende unicamente da ciò che si mangia.

Il risultato acidificante o alcalinizzante viene misurato con una scala chiamata PH, i cui valori vanno da 0 a 14, al valore 7 corrisponde un pH neutro.

È importante sapere come gli alimenti acidi e alcalini influiscono sulla salute, poiché le cellule..per funzionare correttamente dovrebbe essere di un ph leggermente alcalino (poco di sopra al 7).

In una persona sana, il pH del sangue è compreso tra 7.4 e 7.45.

Se il pH del sangue di una persona è inferiore 7, va in coma.

GLI ALIMENTI CHE ACIDIFICANO IL CORPO:
* Lo zucchero raffinato e tutti i suoi sottoprodotti. (È il peggiore di tutti: non ha proteine, senza grassi, senza vitamine o minerali, solo carboidrati raffinati che schiacciano il pancreas). Il suo pH è di 2,1 (molto acido)
* Carne. (Tutti i tipi)
* Prodotti di origine animale (latte e formaggio, ricotta, yogurt, ecc)
* Il sale raffinato.
* Farina raffinata e tutti i suoi derivati. (Pasta, torte, biscotti, ecc)
* Pane. (La maggior parte contengono grassi saturi, margarina, sale, zucchero e conservanti)
* Margarina.
* Caffeina. (Caffè, tè nero, cioccolato)
* Alcool.
* Tabacco. (Sigarette)
* Antibiotici e medicina in generale.
* Qualsiasi cibo cotto. (la cottura elimina l’ossigeno aumentando l’acidita’ dei cibi”)
* Tutti gli alimenti trasformati, in scatola, contenenti conservanti, coloranti, aromi, stabilizzanti, ecc.

Il sangue si ‘autoregola’ costantemente per non cadere in acidosi metabolica, garantire il buon funzionamento e ottimizzare il metabolismo cellulare. Il corpo deve ottenere delle basi minerali alimentari per neutralizzare l’acidità del sangue nel metabolismo, ma tutti gli alimenti già citati (per lo più raffinati) acidificano il sangue e ammorbano il corpo.

Dobbiamo tener conto che con il moderno stile di vita, questi cibi vengono consumati almeno 3 volte al giorno, 365 giorni l’anno e tutti questi alimenti sono anti-fisiologici.

GLI ALIMENTI ALCALINIZZANTI:
* Tutte le verdure crude. (Alcune sono acide al gusto, ma all’interno del corpo avviene una reazione è alcalinizzante.”. Altre sono un po acide, tuttavia, forniscono le basi necessarie per il corretto equilibrio). Le verdure crude producono ossigeno, quelle cotte no.
* I Frutti, stessa cosa. Ad esempio, il limone ha un pH di circa 2,2, tuttavia, all’interno del corpo ha un effetto altamente alcalino. (Probabilmente il più potente di tutti – non fatevi ingannare dal sapore acidulo)

* I frutti producono abbastanza ossigeno.
* Alcuni semi, come le mandorle sono fortemente alcalini.
* I cereali integrali: l’unico cereale alcalinizzante è il miglio. Tutti gli altri sono leggermente acidi, tuttavia, siccome la dieta ideale ha bisogno di una percentuale di acidità, è bene consumarne qualcuno. Tutti i cereali devono essere consumati cotti.
*Il miele è altamente alcalinizzante.
* La clorofilla: le piante sono fortemente alcaline. (In particolare aloe vera, noto anche come aloe)
* L’acqua è importante per la produzione di ossigeno. “La disidratazione cronica è la tensione principale del corpo e la radice della maggior parte tutte le malattie degenerative.” Lo afferma il Dott. Feydoon Batmanghelidj.
* L’esercizio ossigena tutto il corpo. “Uno stile di vita sedentario usura il corpo.”

L’ideale è avere una alimentazione di circa il 60% alcalina piuttosto che acida, e, naturalmente, evitare i prodotti maggiormente acidi, come le bibite, lo zucchero raffinato e gli edulcoranti.

Non abusare del sale o evitarlo il più possibile.

Per coloro che sono malati, l’ideale è che l’alimentazione sia di circa 80% alcalina, eliminando tutti i prodotti più nocivi.

Se si ha il cancro il consiglio è quello di alcalinizzare il più possibile.”

Il Dr. George W. Crile, di Cleveland, uno dei chirurghi più rispettati al mondo, dichiara apertamente: “Tutte le morti chiamate naturali non sono altro che il punto terminale di un saturazione di acidità nel corpo.”

Come precedentemente accennato, è del tutto impossibile, per il cancro, comparire in una persona che libera il corpo dagli acidi con una dieta alcalina, che aumenta il consumo di acqua pura e che eviti i cibi che producono acido.

In generale, il cancro non si contrae e nemmeno si eredita. Ciò che si eredita sono le abitudini alimentari, ambientali e lo stile di vita. Questo può produrre il cancro.

Mencken ha scritto: “La lotta della vita è contro la ritenzione di acido”. “Invecchiamento, mancanza di energia, stress, mal di testa, malattie cardiache, allergie, eczema, orticaria, asma, calcoli renali, arteriosclerosi, tra gli altri, non sono altro che l’accumulo di acidi”.

Il Dr. Theodore A. Baroody ha scritto, nel suo libro “Alcalinizzare o morire” (alcaline o Die):
” In realtà, non importa i nomi delle innumerevoli malattie, ciò che conta è che essi provengono tutti dalla stessa causa principale: molte scorie acide nel corpo”

Dr. Robert O. Young ha detto:
“L’eccesso di acidificazione nell’organismo è la causa di tutte le malattie degenerative. Se succede una perturbazione dell’equilibrio e un corpo inizia a produrre e immagazzinare più acidità e rifiuti tossici di quelli che è in grado di eliminare, allora le malattie si manifestano.”

E LA CHEMIOTERAPIA?
La chemioterapia acidifica il corpo a tal punto, che ricorre alle riserve alcaline dell’organismo, per neutralizzare l’acidità, sacrificando basi minerali (calcio, magnesio e potassio) depositati nelle ossa, denti, articolazioni, unghie e capelli.

Per questo motivo osserviamo tali alterazioni nelle persone che ricevono questo trattamento e, tra le altre cose, la caduta dei capelli. Per il corpo non vuol dire nulla stare senza capelli, ma un pH acido significherebbe la morte.

Niente di tutto questo è descritto o raccontato perché, per tutte le indicazioni, l’industria del cancro (leggi: industria farmaceutica) e la chemioterapia sono alcune delle attività più remunerative che esistano..Si parla di un giro multi-milionario e i proprietari di queste industrie non vogliono che questo sia pubblicato.

Tutto indica che l’industria farmaceutica e l’industria alimentare sono un’unica entità e che ci sia una cospirazione in cui si aiuta l’altro al profitto.

Più le persone sono malate, più sale il profitto dell’industria farmaceutica. E per avere molte persone malate serve molto cibo spazzatura, tanto quanto ne produce l’industria alimentare.

Quanti di noi hanno sentito la notizia di qualcuno che ha il cancro e qualcuno dire: “… Poteva capitare a chiunque …”

No, non poteva!

Che il cibo sia la tua medicina, la medicina sia il tuo cibo”.

 

 

Metformin shows anticancer effect in early breast cancer patients

 Tuesday, July 23, 2013. The results of a study of the diabetes drug metformin in nondiabetic women with early breast cancer indicate that the drug may provide an anticancer effect in addition to other benefits when given during a "window of opportunity." The findings were reported in the October 2012 issue of the journal Breast Cancer Research and Treatment.

The study included 39 women whose core biopsy results were diagnostic of operable invasive breast cancer. Participants received 500 milligrams metformin three times per day for a period of 13 to 40 days up to the evening prior to tumor excision. Blood samples collected before and after treatment with metformin were analyzed for insulin and other factors. Tumor characteristics, including staining for Ki67, a protein associated with cellular proliferation, and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling), an indicator of programmed cell death (apoptosis), were evaluated in the biopsy samples and excised tumors.

Body mass index, weight and insulin resistance decreased significantly among the participants by the end of the treatment period. Ki67 staining in invasive tissue was reduced following treatment with metformin, indicating a reduction in proliferation. Furthermore, TUNEL staining increased, which demonstrated an increase in apoptosis. "Our observations suggest that changes in Ki67 and TUNEL may be mediated, at least in part, by an improvement in factors associated with insulin resistance; they suggest that metformin may impact breast cancer through indirect effects on host (patient) physiology," Pamela J. Goodwin of the University of Toronto and her associates write. "However, additional direct (insulin and glucose independent) anti-tumor effects of metformin cannot be excluded."

"To our knowledge, this is the first study to report an increase in apoptosis in breast cancer associated with the use of metformin in the neoadjuvant setting," they announce. "Short-term preoperative metformin was well tolerated and resulted in clinical and cellular changes consistent with beneficial anti-cancer effects; evaluation of the clinical relevance of these findings in adequately powered clinical trials using clinical endpoints such as survival is needed."

 

Higher dose metformin associated with improved survival among colorectal cancer patients

 

The journal Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention published an article on June 10, 2013 which reports a benefit for the antidiabetic drug metformin in colorectal cancer survival.

The study involved 3,816 men and women with stage I-III colorectal cancer diagnosed between 2001 and 2006, including 207 diabetics who had been prescribed metformin, 108 diabetics who did not use the drug and 3,501 nondiabetics. The subjects were followed through 2010, during which 196 deaths occurred among those with diabetes, and 1,897 occurred among the nondiabetics. Among the diabetic patients, 93 deaths were due to colorectal cancer, and 1,082 nondiabetic deaths were attributable to the disease.

When subjects treated with metformin were compared to diabetics who did not use the drug, a reduction in the risk of death due to colorectal cancer that "approached significance" was observed. However, those whose use of metformin was categorized as high intensity (higher dose), had a 56% lower risk of dying of the disease than diabetics who did not use the drug. Metformin use was additionally associated with a 31% lower adjusted risk of dying from any cause among diabetic subjects over follow-up.

"This study is the first, to the authors' knowledge, to assess the presence of an exposure response effect between increasing metformin use and colorectal cancer outcomes," authors Susan C. Spillane and her colleagues at St James Hospital in Dublin announce. "Significant associations were observed in stratified analyses of high intensity exclusive metformin usage and the results also suggest that metformin exposure may potentially improve survival relative to non-diabetic patients. Additional studies in larger population-based cohorts are required to further explore the influence of varying exposure levels and timing and to determine if any patient subgroups are more likely to benefit from metformin."

 

Natural Strategies For Boosting

Resistance to Cancer

Prevention of Cancer Development and Progression

Natural strategies known to prevent the development and progression of cancer include:

Calcium. In clinical studies involving more than 1000 colorectal cancer patients, calcium supplements reduced the risk of  recurrence of colon polyps(Shaukat A et al 2005). Other studies show that calcium supplements generally reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer in the first place (Flood A et al 2005; Sandler RS 2005). This beneficial effect of calcium was noted for calcium obtained from both dietary sources and nutritional supplements (Flood A et al 2005).

Carotenoids. Clinical studies have found that supplementing with lycopene, a carotenoid that is abundant in tomatoes and tomato-based products, can protect against cancers of the prostate (Campbell JK et al 2004; Jian L et al 2005; Kucuk O et al 2002), colon (Nair S et al 2001), pancreas (Nkondjock A et al 2005), ovaries (Huncharek M et al 2001), breast (Toniolo P et al 2001), and bladder (Schabath MB et al 2004).

According to the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, individuals seeking broad spectrum colon protection should also include foods rich in lutein (another type of carotenoid) in their diet (Slattery ML et al 2000). These include spinach, broccoli, lettuce, tomatoes, oranges, carrots, celery, and greens.

Curcumin, extracted from the spice turmeric, has preventive and therapeutic anti-cancer properties (Aggarwal BB et al 2003; Sharma RA et al 2004).

Curcumin can stop the growth of cancers of the prostate (Dorai T et al 2000; Dorai T et al 2004), colon (Narayan S 2004), and breast (Inano H et al 2000).

In a phase I clinical study of colorectal cancer patients, curcumin in doses of up to 3.6 grams a day improved some clinical markers and was not associated with any toxicities (Sharma RA et al 2004). Clinical studies have shown that curcumin in doses of up to 10 grams a day had no adverse effects in humans (Aggarwal BB et al 2003).

Garlic has long been known to have anti-cancer properties (Das S 2002; Khanum F et al 2004) due to its ability to disrupt the function of cancer-causing agents (Das S 2002).

Garlic consumption lowers the risk of developing a range of cancers, including those of the stomach, colon, mammary glands, cervix (Khanum F et al 2004; Sengupta A et al 2004), and prostate (Hsing AW et al 2002). Garlic-derived allitridum, taken in combination with selenium, protects against the development of gastric cancer (Li H et al 2004).

Various other garlic extracts, including aged garlic extract, allicin, and ajoene, have a range of cancer-preventive and therapeutic capabilities (Oommen S et al 2004; Tanaka S et al 2004; Xu B et al 2004).

Green and Black Teas. Catechins and theaflavins, compounds found in green and black teas, have anti-cancer properties (Yang CS et al 2005).

Clinical studies have shown that consuming five or more cups a day of green tea reduces the risk of developing breast cancer, and may help reduce the risk of recurrence in breast cancer survivors (Seely D et al 2005).

Consumption of green tea also significantly improves the survival of ovarian cancer patients (Zhang M et al 2004) and reduces the risk of developing cancers of the lung, breast, and prostate (Bonner MR et al 2005; Doss MX et al 2005).

Such is the strength of data demonstrating green tea’s potential in preventing cancer that Japanese researchers are trying to develop a strategy, based on green tea consumption, for delaying cancer onset in the Japanese population, as well as reducing the risk of recurrence in cancer survivors (Fujiki H 2005).

Folic Acid. The use of folic acid dietary supplements, or the adoption of diets rich in fruits and vegetables containing folate, is associated with a reduced risk of developing cancer, particularly colorectal (Martinez ME et al 2004; Strohle A et al 2005) and lung cancers (Shen H et al 2003). Sufficient intake of folic acid is also thought to protect against breast cancer (Zhang SM 2004) because folic acid guards against DNA damage and promotes gene stability (Strohle A et al 2005).

Melatonin. The hormone melatonin, produced by the pineal gland during night-time hours, has anti-cancer properties (Anisimov VN 2003; Sainz RM et al 2005).

The use of melatonin (20 mg a night) during chemotherapy improves survival and quality of life in lung cancer patients (Lissoni P et al 2003). Melatonin also reduces the growth potential of prostate and breast cancer cells (Sainz RM et al 2005; Shiu SY et al 2003).

Further evidence supporting melatonin’s role as a cancer-preventive agent comes from studies showing an elevated risk of breast cancer in night-shift workers and others who have lower levels of melatonin due to the disruption of their waking and sleeping cycles (Anisimov VN 2003). Interestingly, blind people, who generally have higher melatonin levels, have lower rates of cancer (Coleman MP et al 1992; Feychting M et al 1998).

Selenium supplements have cancer-preventive properties (Combs GF, Jr. 2005), particularly in reducing the occurrence of lung, colorectal, esophageal, and prostate cancers (Mark SD et al 2000). Indeed, low selenium levels are associated with a four- to fivefold increase in the risk of developing prostate cancer (Brooks JD et al 2001). Higher selenium levels are associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer (Brooks JD et al 2001). Because selenium levels decline with age, selenium supplements may be of particular benefit to elderly men (Brooks JD et al 2001).

However, the benefits of selenium supplements in preventing cancer appear to be cancer-specific, as some clinical studies have shown supplementation to be ineffective in protecting against basal and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin (Clark LC et al 1996). Indeed, selenium supplements may increase the risk of squamous cell carcinoma (Duffield-Lillico AJ et al 2003b).

In addition to their cancer-preventive potential, selenium supplements may enhance the effectiveness of conventional chemotherapy treatment (Vadgama JV et al 2000) and improve quality of life for patients undergoing radiation therapy (Hehr T et al 1997).

Silymarin, a milk thistle extract, demonstrates anti-cancer properties against prostate cancer cells and may be useful in preventing and treating prostate cancer (Singh RP et al 2004; vis-Searles PR et al 2005).

Vitamin A derivatives, known as retinoids, protect against the development of various cancers, including those of the skin, breast, and lung (Clarke N et al 2004; Khera P et al 2005). Dietary supplementation with synthetic vitamin A for 12 months in liver cancer survivors prevented recurrence of this cancer (Takai K et al 2005). In addition to preventing cancer, vitamin A derivatives have been used to cure acute promyelocytic leukemia (Clarke N et al 2004).

Vitamin C. Long-term human studies have shown that vitamin C dietary supplements, when used in conjunction with other antioxidants, can reduce the risk of developing cancer (Hercberg S et al 2004). Similar results were found for cancers of the prostate (Meyer F et al 2005) and lung (Mooney LA et al 2005; Wright ME et al 2004).

Vitamin D. Moderate sun exposure causes the synthesis of vitamin D in the skin. This micronutrient is known to play a role in cancer prevention (Holick MF 2004; Kimlin MG et al 2004). Indeed, medical literature dating back more than 50 years affirms that regular sun exposure is associated with a substantial decrease in death rates from certain types of cancers (Ainsleigh HG 1993). It is estimated that moderate sun exposure without sunscreen—that is, enough to stimulate vitamin D production but not enough to damage the skin—could prevent 30,000 cancer deaths in the United States each year (Ainsleigh HG 1993). The sun’s most damaging rays occur between 10 a.m. and 3 p.m., the hours demanding the greatest watchfulness.

Insufficient vitamin D levels are particularly associated with increased risk of developing breast, colon, and prostate cancers (Chen TC et al 2003; Studzinski GP et al 1995). Increased vitamin D levels, obtained through sun exposure, are associated with a reduced risk of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (Hughes AM et al 2004). Vitamin D causes bones to release calcium and can thus lead to excessively high calcium levels (hypercalcemia); however, scientists are developing synthetic versions of natural vitamin D (deltanoids) that lack this adverse side effect (Agoston ES et al 2006; Guyton KZ et al 2003).

Vitamin E. Clinical studies have shown that vitamin E can reduce the risk of prostate and lung cancers, particularly when used in combination with selenium supplements (Helzlsouer KJ et al 2000; Woodson K et al 1999). Regular and long-term (over 10 years) use of vitamin E reduces the risk of death from bladder cancer (Jacobs EJ et al 2002). Similarly, the use of vitamin E supplements for longer than three years slightly reduces the risk of recurrence among breast cancer survivors (Fleischauer AT et al 2003).

In addition, animal studies indicate that vitamin E may have activity against colon cancer and melanoma (Barnett KT et al 2002; Malafa MP et al 2002b; Malafa MP et al 2002a).

Larger clinical studies are currently underway to further assess vitamin E’s protective role against prostate cancer (Fleshner N et al 2005; Lippman SM et al 2005).

Vitamin K has been shown in laboratory and animal studies to have anti-cancer properties (Lamson DW et al 2003). Results from a small clinical study indicate that vitamin K may protect women with viral liver cirrhosis, a known risk factor for liver cancer, from developing the disease (Habu D et al 2004).

Alpha-Tocopherol supplementation, which provides the biological activity of vitamin E, reduces levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a tumor growth factor that plays a critical role in the formation of new blood vessels by cancer cells and subsequent tumor invasion of other organs (Woodson K et al 2002). Indeed, levels of this cancer growth factor decreased by 11 percent in the supplemented group but increased by 10 percent in the non-supplemented group (Woodson K et al 2002).

Curcumin is known to arrest the growth of established cancer (Furness MS et al 2005) by interfering with the production of growth factors that cancer cells need to establish new blood vessels and thus invade other organs, a process known as angiogenesis (Arbiser JL et al 1998; Dulak J 2005; Furness MS et al 2005).

Green Tea. Epigallocatechin in green tea has long been known to have cancer-preventive properties (Cooper R et al 2005). Epigallocatechin prevents cancer cells from forming new blood vessels and thereby spreading to other organs (Jung YD et al 2001).

Pomegranate Extract. A laboratory study has demonstrated that extracts of the pomegranate fruit can prevent human prostate cancer cells from invading new tissues (Albrecht M et al 2004).

Soy (Genistein). Present in soy, genistein prevents any cancer cells that persist after surgery from invading new organs and spreading (Vantyghem SA et al 2005). This potential to arrest the spread of cancer is linked to genistein’s ability to reduce production of the growth factor VEGF, a prerequisite for cancer spread and invasion (Ravindranath MH et al 2004).

 

 

 

 

Age Related Cognitive Decline

All aging humans will develop some degree of decline in cognitive capacity as time progresses. Data indicates that deterioration of the biological framework that underlies the ability to think and reason begins as early as the mid twenties and includes a drop in regional brain volume,1,2,3,4,5 loss of myelin integrity,6,7 cortical thinning,8,9 impaired serotonin, acetylcholine, and dopamine receptor binding and signaling,10,11,12,13 accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles,14 and altered concentrations of various brain metabolites.15 Cumulatively these changes give rise to a variety of symptoms associated with aging, such as forgetfulness, decreased ability to maintain focus, and decreased problem solving capability. If left unchecked, symptoms oftentimes progress into more serious conditions, such as dementia and depression, or even Alzheimer’s disease.

Cognitive decline does not affect all individuals equally; clear associations exist between the rate and severity of cognitive decline and a variety of factors, including oxidative stress and free radical damage,16,17,18 chronic low-level inflammation,19 declining hormone levels,20 endothelial dysfunction,21 excess body weight,22 suboptimal nutrition,23 lifestyle,24 social network,25 other medical conditions,26 and various biomarkers.27 Fortunately, many of these factors are modifiable to a significant extent, and proactive lifestyle changes, cognitive training, and nutritional interventions have been shown to decrease the rate of intellectual decay and potentially reverse age-related cognitive decline.

The Aging Brain

 
 

The aging process profoundly impacts the brain in ways that can be observed on multiple levels, ranging from sub-cellularly to macro-structurally. On a diminutive scale, aging causes deterioration of neuronal and mitochondrial membranes, which leads to the loss of cellular integrity and impaired neuronal function.28,29,30 Steep age-related declines in neurotransmitter synthesis and signaling,31,32,33 coupled with reductions in synaptic density and plasticity (adaptability),34,35 and loss of as much as 50% of the length of myelinated axons36 (see figure 1) make the brain increasingly less efficient as we age.

In a broader sense, the physical structure of the brain as a whole also deteriorates with age. Shrinkage and death of neurons, and reductions in the number of synaptic spines and functional synapses contribute to annual reductions of as much as 0.5% to 1.0% in cortical thickness (the cortex is the outermost layer of the brain) and sub-cortical volume in some regions of the brain.37 Specifically, even in healthy individuals, aging accounts for volume variances of 37% in the thalamus, which is involved in sight, hearing, and the sleep-wake cycle; 36% in the nucleus accumbens, which plays a major role in mood regulation (e.g. pleasure, fear, reward); and 33% in the hippocampus, a critical site for consolidation of short-term to long-term memory.38 Taken together, age related neuroanatomical changes account for an estimated 25% to 100% of the variance in cognitive ability between young and aged individuals.39 In other words, age related cognitive decline occurs in tandem with the physical degradation of brain structure. Thus, conserving cognitive vigilance into late life requires early and aggressive intervention to preserve the brain in its youthful physical and functional state.

Biological Risk Factors Contributing to Cognitive Decline

Various biological systems work in conjunction to maintain optimal brain function and cognitive ability. Perturbations in the harmony of these systems, caused by such age-associated insults as chronic inflammation40 oxidative stress,41 insulin resistance,42 declining hormone levels,43 and endothelial dysfunction,44 result in physical deterioration of the brain and subsequent cognitive decline.

Oxidative Stress. The brain is particularly susceptible to oxidative damage since it consumes roughly 20% of the oxygen used by the entire body, and because it contains high concentrations of phospholipids, which are especially prone to oxidative damage in the context of high metabolic rate.45 As we age, there is a significant and progressive increase in the level of oxidatively damaged DNA and lipids in the brain; this is true even for healthy individuals.46 Over time, this free radical damage leads to the death of neurons.

Numerous studies have implicated oxidative stress in the pathology of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease alike.47,48,49

In a study of 338 individuals, researchers analyzed blood samples from patients with various neurodegenerative diseases and found that the antioxidant capacity of their blood was reduced by as much as 28%, relative to healthy controls. Subjects with a neurodegenerative condition also exhibited significantly increased levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, a marker of free radical damage.50

A separate study, in which researchers examined the plasma of 34 subjects with mild cognitive impairment, 45 with Alzheimer’s disease, and 28 age-matched healthy controls, revealed that patients with mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer’s disease displayed markedly increased oxidative damage. Subjects with mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer’s disease exhibited increased protein oxidation (protein carbonyls) and decreased levels of glutathione, a powerful endogenous antioxidant.51

In aged rodents exhibiting signs of cognitive deterioration, increased oxidation of key proteins involved in neuronal metabolism and energy production has been observed.52 Old animals also display dramatically reduced ability to combat oxidative stress, as assessed by a loss of efficiency of thiol reducing systems.53

Inflammation. The inflammatory process in the brain is unique in that the blood-brain barrier (BBB) (tight layer of endothelial cells that separates the brain from regular systemic circulation), during healthy conditions, prevents the infiltration of inflammatory agents and allows only select nutrients and small molecules into the central nervous system (CNS).54 However, chronic systemic inflammation induced by stimuli such as cigarette smoking, obesity, disrupted sleep patterns and poor dietary habits compromises the integrity of the BBB, allowing irritants to enter the brain and stimulate the production of inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-18.55 Inside the CNS, these cytokines impair neurogenesis, the process by which new neurons are generated.56,57,58,59 Aside from inhibiting neurogenesis, some inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α damage and destroy existing neurons.60,61

Several studies have linked biomarkers of inflammation with cognitive impairment.

A prospective study of 779 healthy, high-functioning men and women found that subjects in the highest tertile (one-third) for blood levels of IL-6 were significantly more likely to score below the median when assessed for cognitive function at baseline. During follow-up seven years later those same individuals more frequently exhibited declines in cognition compared to their counterparts with lower baseline IL-6 levels.62

In a study of 97 women between 60 and 70 years of age, elevated baseline high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels were correlated with worsening of memory at 12 years follow-up. This data led the authors to conclude that “hs-CRP may be a useful biomarker to identify individuals at an increased risk for cognitive decline.”63 Likewise, in a study assessing over 4,000 subjects, higher levels of CRP and IL-6 were found to be associated with decreased cognition and executive function. IL-6 was also associated with steeper declines in memory performance during follow-up at up to five years.64

Another study found that, even in healthy individuals, baseline CRP levels were inversely correlated with the results of a learning and recall test at follow-up six years later. The investigators concluded that “relatively high concentrations of… CRP may be indicative for impaired cognitive performance.” 65 In a similar study, biological markers were measured in the blood of 93 healthy individuals aged 57 years (mean). At six years follow-up time, those individuals with the highest baseline CRP levels scored lower on a Word Learning test. In this study it was concluded that “concentrations of serum markers related to inflammation…are not only associated with Alzheimer's disease, but also with cognitive functioning in the cognitively healthy aging population.”66

The deleterious effects of inflammation on cognitive function are observable in real-time as well. Researchers administered a typhoid vaccination, which is known to induce an inflammatory response, or a placebo injection to 16 healthy men aged 18 to 35. Study subjects then completed a series of tests designed to assess cognitive vigilance. Participants who received the typhoid vaccination exhibited significantly slower reaction times than their counterparts who received the placebo, and the degree of delay in reaction time correlated with the intensity of inflammation, as measured by circulating IL-6 levels.67

Hormonal Imbalance. Distributed throughout the brain are steroid hormone receptors which function to regulate the transcription of a vast array of genes involved in cognition and behavior.68 Adequate steroid hormone receptor activation in the brain is a fundamental determinant in many aspects of our lives that we take for granted. When hormonal imbalances or deficiencies disrupt receptor activation, cognitive deficits and emotional turmoil are the result.

  • Estrogen

Animal models indicate that experimentally-induced alterations in the levels of steroid hormones, particularly estradiol, in the brain cause significant behavioral changes observable within minutes, leading some researchers to conclude that steroid hormones actually have the capacity to function directly as neurotransmitters in the central nervous system.69 In humans, suboptimal (low) levels of estradiol are associated with decreased scores on standardized assessments of cognition in both men and women.70 Postmenopausal women with higher levels of endogenous estradiol also have better semantic memory than do those deficient in the estrogen.71 Accordingly, postmenopausal women treated with estradiol displayed improvements in executive function compared to those taking a placebo.72

  • Testosterone

Maintaining optimal levels of testosterone can help preserve cognitive ability as well. In a study involving over 500 aging men and women, higher levels of testosterone were linked with better performance on the Mini-Mental State Examination at baseline. Men with the lowest levels of testosterone at the beginning of the study period were more likely to exhibit a sharp decline in cognitive ability over the following two-year period as well.73 Several other studies also conclude that testosterone levels are positively associated with multiple aspects of cognitive function.74,75

Aging men given testosterone replacement therapy display improved cognitive function. In one study healthy men between the ages of 50 and 85 years responded to supplemental testosterone restoration treatment with significantly improved spatial and verbal memory, and spatial ability.76 Likewise, men with mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer’s disease responded to testosterone therapy with enhanced spatial and verbal memory, and constructional abilities.77

Experimental studies indicate that the connection between testosterone and cognitive function is due in part to the dependence of the hippocampus on androgens to maintain synaptic density. Intriguing data shows that male non-human primates devoid of androgens have a dramatically reduced number of synapses in the hippocampus, which is of paramount importance for consolidation of short-term and long-term memory, as well as learning.78 Additional experimental data shows that hippocampal synaptic maintenance is androgen dependent.79

  • Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)

Age-associated decline in levels of the adrenal hormone dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), which is very active in the central nervous system,80 are also tied to worsening cognitive performance.81 In a study involving over 750 aging subjects, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores were significantly associated with levels of DHEA-s, the sulfated metabolic derivate of DHEA, which is more highly concentrated in humans. Moreover, those individuals with the lowest levels of DHEA-s at baseline displayed greater cognitive decline over time than those with higher initial levels.82 In a separate community-based study involving nearly 300 healthy women, levels of DHEA-S correlated positively with superior executive function, concentration, and working memory.83 Accordingly, in a double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trial, six-months of supplementation with 25 mg of DHEA daily improved measures of cognitive function, especially verbal fluency, in aging women.84

  • Pregnenolone

Another neurosteroid, pregnenolone, is also involved with a number of cognition-related functions within the brain. For example, experimental studies indicate that pregnenolone modulates neurotransmitter signaling through interaction with select receptor sites, which translates to improvements in long-term memory in rodents.85,86 In human clinical trials, supplementation with pregnenolone improved cognition in subjects with neurological disorders.87 Additionally, levels of pregnenolone metabolites are reduced significantly in the prefrontal cortex, and area involved with higher-order processing, in Alzheimer’s disease patients, leading some researchers to speculate that pregnenolone levels may be relevant in the pathology of the disease.88

Research indicates that DHEA, pregnenolone, and metabolites thereof exert numerous activities in the central nervous system through activation of the Sigma-1 receptor. This effect may confer benefits including protecting neurons against ischemia (i.e. stroke),89 and enhancement of long-term potentiation (memory formation).90

  • Thyroid hormones

During the developmental period thyroid hormones play a critical role in ensuring proper growth and maturation of the brain.91 Thyroid hormone levels may also be related to cognitive function in adults, though the evidence in this area is inconsistent. However, limited associations with both hypo- (low) and hyper- (high) thyroid function and cognitive impairment exist in the peer reviewed literature, thus maintaining levels of TSH, T3, and T4 within normal ranges is suggested.92

 
 

Cerebrovascular Health. The brain depends on the carotid arteries to obtain the oxygen and nutrient-rich blood that it needs to sustain its high rate of metabolic activity. The carotid arteries emerge from the aorta and carry blood through the neck into the brain where they branch and diverge into many smaller capillaries, which facilitate circulation across the various brain regions. Like other blood vessels, the carotid arteries and their subsidiaries (smaller branches) are susceptible to endothelial dysfunction, dysregulation and damage to the delicate cells that line our blood vessels. Endothelial dysfunction is a critical step in both the initiation, and progression, of atherosclerosis.

If the integrity of the blood vessels that supply the brain is compromised, cognition suffers as a result. Multiple correlates between measures of vascular health and cognitive function are identified in the peer-reviewed literature.

  • HDL levels

HDL serves to shuttle cholesterol from the blood vessel walls back to the liver for excretion, and thus insufficient levels of HDL are associated with increased endothelial dysfunction and arterial plaque deposition. Studies have linked low HDL levels with declining brain health and function.

Researchers examined the brains of 183 subjects, mean age 58 years, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Tests revealed that HDL levels were positively associated with brain grey matter volume. Not surprisingly, then, subjects with higher HDL levels also scored significantly higher on a visuo-spatial memory test than their counterparts with lower HDL levels. These findings lead the investigators to conclude that “adults with decreased levels of HDL cholesterol may be experiencing cognitive changes and grey matter reductions in regions associated with neurodegenerative disease and therefore, may be at greater risk for future cognitive decline.”93

In a study of 139 very elderly subjects, plasma HDL levels were strongly associated with cognitive acuity. Subjects with higher HDL levels performed much better on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) than those with lower HDL levels. In fact, “each decrease in plasma HDL tertile (74.9 +/- 2.1, 50.6 +/- 0.5, and 36.8 +/- 1.0 mg/dl) was associated with a significant decrease in MMSE [score].”94

  • Homocysteine

Homocysteine is an endogenous amino acid derivative which damages the endothelial cells that line the inside of blood vessels and contributes to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and vascular dysfunction.95 Elevated homocysteine has been linked with reduced blood flow to the brain,96 memory impairment,97 poorer global cognitive function,98 smaller overall brain volume,99 and increased silent brain infarcts (subclinical stroke-like blood vessel occlusions in the brain).100

In a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial, which included over 5,500 subjects with known cardiovascular disease, treatment with the homocysteine-lowering B vitamins folic acid (2.5 mg), B6 (50 mg) and B12 (1,000 mcg) was shown to significantly reduce the risk of stroke versus placebo, highlighting the link between cerebrovascular health and homocysteine levels.101

Similarly, lowering homocysteine in individuals over 70 years of age through supplementation with 800 mcg folic acid, 500 mcg B12, and 20 mg B6 daily for a period of 24 months was shown to reduce the rate of brain atrophy by 53% versus placebo control in a randomized, double-blind trial. Subjects receiving the homocysteine lowering B-vitamins also scored much better on their final cognitive tests at the end of the study period.102

  • Hypertension

Small, delicate capillaries, like those that perpetuate the flow of blood throughout the brain, are particularly susceptible to damage caused by elevated blood pressure. Chronic hypertension leads to the breakdown of cerebrocapillaries, a condition associated with the development neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive impairment.103

A case-control study of over 700 patients found a statistically significant correlation between blood pressure and rate of cognitive decline over a six-month period for subjects younger than 65 years.104 Accordingly, an observational study of more than 1,800 people revealed that individuals taking an antihypertensive medication were less likely to have dementia at the study onset, and were also less likely to develop dementia over the following three year period. Significantly, subjects who did have dementia at baseline and were not taking blood pressure medication exhibited a two-fold faster rate of cognitive decline than demented individuals with medication-controlled hypertension.105

In a study which followed 717 individuals for 38 years starting from age 45, researchers found that subjects with systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg throughout the study period “performed consistently less well than the normal systolic blood pressure subgroups on a composite measure of verbal learning and memory.”106

Evidence suggests that blood pressure of 115/75 mmHg significantly reduces the risk for cardiovascular disease,107 and thus may be an ideal target for those who wish to maintain optimal cognitive performance as well.

Diabetes and Insulin Resistance. Due to the high metabolic demand for energy in the brain, even small perturbations in glucose metabolism can noticeably impact cognitive performance. Diabetes (hyperglycemia) has been linked with lower levels of neuronal growth factors,108 decreased brain volume,109 and higher incidence of all types of dementia.110

Cerebral glucose metabolism was measured by fludeoxyglucose – positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in 23 adults aged 74 years (mean), who met criteria for diabetes or pre-diabetes. The results were compared to those of six 74 year old (mean) adults without diabetes or pre-diabetes. Subjects were asked to memorize and recall a list of 20 random words they heard through a pair of headphones. FDG-PET scans revealed markedly different patterns of glucose utilization and brain activity between diabetic / pre-diabetic subjects and healthy controls during the memorization task. Subjects with healthy glucose metabolism remembered more words upon recall attempt. Interestingly, FDG-PET scans of those with pre-diabetes / diabetes resembled brain scans of Alzheimer’s patients.111

Researchers in another study compared MRI-assessed manifestations of cerebral degeneration in 89 non-demented subjects with type-2 diabetes to 438 age-matched healthy controls over a three-year period. Individuals with diabetes displayed increased progression of brain atrophy, and performed less well on tests of cognitive performance and learning. The investigators concluded that “our data show that elderly patients with [type-2 diabetes] without dementia have accelerated progression of brain atrophy with significant consequences in cognition compared to subjects without [type-2 diabetes]. Our findings add further evidence to the hypothesis that diabetes exerts deleterious effects on neuronal integrity.”112

In over 1,300 aging men, researchers observed an inverse correlation between fasting insulin levels and cognitive function in non-diabetics. Baseline insulin levels were assessed and followed by a battery of cognitive testing an average 3.3 years later. Subjects with higher initial insulin levels scored more poorly on all four tests administered. These results indicate that “higher fasting insulin and greater insulin secretion in older men may be related to overall cognitive decline, even in the absence of diabetes.”113

Obesity. Adipose tissue secretes molecules that directly influence multiple functions within the brain.114 There is a clearly established reciprocal relationship between adiposity (amount of body fat) and overall brain volume and cognitive function. In other words, as bodyweight increases, brain volume drops and cognitive function worsens.115,116,117,118

In a study utilizing MRI brain imaging technology to explore the link between obesity and brain volume, researchers discovered that visceral abdominal obesity in particular was associated with deteriorating brain structure. This was true even in individuals without pre-existing cognitive deficits. The findings were statistically significant and independent of vascular risk factors and overall BMI. 119

Similar findings were reported by another group, but this time in 700 patients with a prior diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease or cognitive impairment. Investigators identified a strong correlation between higher BMI and brain volume deficits in the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes. It was concluded that “cardiovascular risk factors, especially obesity, should be considered as influencing brain structure in those already afflicted by cognitive impairment and dementia.”120

In 90 healthy middle-aged and older adults (ages 54 – 81), who performed tests of manual dexterity, motor speed, and executive function, greater central obesity as manifested by higher waist circumference was associated with poorer performance. Not surprisingly, high blood pressure exacerbated the correlation between increasing waist circumference and declining cognition; “in healthy older adults, there are similar, negative relations of central and total obesity to cognitive function that are potentiated by higher [blood pressure] levels.”121

Mid-life obesity was strongly linked to later-life dementia in over 1,000 participants in a longitudinal study carried out over a 36 year period. Subjects with the greatest waist diameters at baseline were nearly three-fold more likely to develop dementia over the following three decades. The investigators in this study concluded that “central obesity in midlife increases risk of dementia independent of diabetes and cardiovascular comorbidities.”122

 

 

 

Breast Health: Iodine and Other Nutrients Play a Crucial Role

Jorge D. Flechas M.D., M.P.H.


Of all the cancers women develop, 29 percent are breast cancer. By age 25, 1 in 19,608 women will develop breast cancer. By age 50, this number changes to a shocking 1 in 50 and by age 75 an even more dismal statistic: 1 in 11. In a total lifetime, one woman in 8 will develop breast cancer.

In January 2005, cancer became the leading cause of death in the United States. Each year about 211,000 cases of breast cancer are diagnosed in the USA. The number of new breast cancer cases increased from 82 per 100,000 women in 1973 to 195 per 100,000 women in 2000. The main cause of death prior to that was heart disease. The estimated death rate from breast cancer is 40,600: 40,200 females and 400 males.

Much is said in the public media about a genetic link with this cancer. Yet, genetics play only a small role in the development of breast cancer — less than 7 percent. In the September 8, 2006 issue of USA TODAY one of the lead articles was on Killer Cancer Genes ID’d. It mentioned that 122 breast cancer-causing genes have been identified. The scientist quoted in the article mentioned that we may not be able to tackle all the genes in a tumor but that we may have to work on silencing the cancer-causing genes. Doctors in the future may find that silencing even one of these genes could be enough to keep a tumor in check or kill it. They mention in the article that treatments could be a decade or more to develop.

Yet, the technology for tomorrow is here today in the supplements we have at our disposal. For example, methylation of DNA and gene silencing are affected by nutrition. Many articles exist on silencing genes and how the use of methyl-folic acid, methyl-vitamin B12, selenium, trimethylglycine powder and zinc help to methylate the DNA.

Breast Cancer Risk Factors

Many breast cancer risk factors have been identified such as a high-fat diet, low-fiber diet, tobacco use, and alcohol use. These risk factors can be modified by an individual. There are other factors that are mostly out of a woman’s control. The longer a woman is exposed to estrogen in her body, for example, the higher her risk. This would include early age at menarche, late age at menopause, long-term use of birth control pills and nulliparity (never having given birth). There seems to be a group of women whose use of birth control pills for more that 4 years puts them at higher risk before age 45. Women who take thyroid hormone are also at higher risk for developing breast cancer.1 Conversely, a lower risk for breast cancer is seen in women who are late in age at menarche, early age at menopause, and early age at first pregnancy.

Fibrocystic Breasts

In the New England Journal of Medicine, July 22, 2005 issue, there was a lead article showing that benign breast changes in women are associated with breast cancer. Benign breast changes is a new term for what we have called fibrocystic breast disease (FBD) in the past. FBD is currently affecting about 84 percent of the female population in North America.2 FBD is a misnomer because the medical problem is not a disease in the strictest sense. It is more a problem of cyclic breast pain that is associated with the menstrual cycle. In some patients the breast pain is seen daily, regardless of their menstrual cycle. Tissue biopsy for these benign breast changes that do grow larger are called proliferative lesions and if they do not grow they are called non-proliferative lesions.

Non-proliferative lesions (non-growers) can include cyst of the breast, radial scars, apocrine cells which generally make up sweat glands—the breasts are classified as a modified sweat gland—fibroadenoma, and hyperplastic cells that are normal in appearance under the microscope but are more numerous than usual. Proliferative lesions with normal cells are called sclerosing adenosis, which have a slightly increased risk (1.5 to 2 times). There are proliferative lesions with abnormal or atypical cells that are called hyperplasia—high degree with a moderate increased risk of breast cancer of (4 to 5 times), lobular neoplasia and intraductal papilloma. As a rule in medicine, the more abnormal cells look under the microscope, i.e., the more atypical the cells look, the higher the risk of cancer being present.

Iodine’s Supportive Role

Back in the early 1990s it was noted that patients who had iodine deficiency had associated benign breast changes. By giving these patient’s iodine the breast changes that were present would regress.2 It had been noticed a few years earlier that in animal studies, where the animal had been denied access to iodine, the animals developed benign breast changes like humans.3-5 In animal studies, researchers have been able to produce breast cancer in animals by depriving them of iodine.4

In my own personal medical practice I have literally seen the regression of cysts, nodules, scar tissue, and painful breast with the use of 50 mg of Iodoral® per day for 2-3 years. The breast pain goes away in just a few weeks, but the cyst/cysts, scar tissue and breast nodules take up to 2 to 3 years to resolve. On mammograms I have seen a 50 to 80 percent reduction in the scar tissue present in the breast. Studies are needed to show via biopsy that the many different types of FBD will regress with iodine supplementation.

Before starting on iodine therapy, a patient should have their thyroid hormone values investigated. A doctor should check the size of the thyroid for enlargement and or nodules. An iodine-loading test should also be done prior to starting iodine therapy to establish the need for iodine therapy. In this test the patient is given 50 mg of iodine and a 24-hour urine test is then collected. The iodine level in the urine is measured. The more saturated the body is with iodine the higher the level of iodine excreted. The more saturated the body is, the less breast abnormalities have been seen. The test is repeated at 3 months to document increasing saturation. If saturation is not occurring then further investigation is called for to find out why saturation isn’t happening.

Additional Support

Several other nutrients/hormones are also important to breast health and can be used in conjunction with Iodoral. DIM (diindolylmethane), the nutrient derived from cruciferous vegetables, for example, is influential in helping the body metabolize estrogen. DIM has been shown to change the way estrogen is metabolized. Metabolism of the natural estrogen estradiol occurs via one of two pathways. The tumor enhancer metabolic pathway, 16 alpha-hydroxylation, is elevated in patients with breast and endometrial cancer and in those at increased risk of such cancers. This increased 16 alpha-hydroxylation activity has been shown to precede clinical evidence of cancer, and it represents a significant risk factor for developing estrogen-dependent tumors.

Conversely, when estrogen veers away from the 16-alpha pathway and takes another route out of the body, the incidence of cancer decreases. This alternate route, which acts as a tumor suppressor metabolic pathway, is called 2-hydroxylation, a process that transforms estrogen into 2-hydroxyestrone (20HEI), an antiestrogen. Healthy individuals not at risk for breast or endometrial cancer bypass the 16-alpha route and instead metabolize estrogen through this preferable pathway. DIM signals the body to metabolize estrogen via the tumor suppressor 2-hydroxylation pathway.

In addition to this more well known estrogen-related mechanism of action of DIM, recent research also indicates that DIM can prevent angiogenesis, the process by which new blood vessels develop. Cancer cells use the development of new blood vessels to spread throughout the body. In mice, DIM inhibited angiogenesis by up to 76 percent.6 In addition, in mice implanted with human breast cancer cells, tumor growth was inhibited by 64 percent in animals treated with DIM.6

Another means of supporting breast health is by using natural progesterone cream. A syndrome known as Estrogen Dominance is prevalent in women, especially postmenopausal women. According to progesterone researcher Dr. John Lee, estrogen unopposed by progesterone results in a number of adverse effects including painful breasts, fibrocystic breast disease, and breast cancer.

Estrogen dominance usually occurs at menopause, when progesterone production falls to approximately 1 percent of its pre-menopausal level. At this time, the production of estrogen falls to about 50 percent of its pre-menopausal levels. This dramatically alters the estrogen: progesterone ratio, causing estrogen to become toxic without progesterone to oppose it. As a result, the risks for breast and uterine cancer and fibrocystic breast disease increase.7 Therefore, progesterone also has a crucial role to play in maintaining breast health.

Vitamin D is another breast-supportive nutrient. Women who have mutations in their vitamin D receptor gene are nearly twice as likely to develop breast cancer compared to women who do not have the mutation. The vitamin D receptor gene controls the action of vitamin D in the body. Scientists have found that Caucasian women with certain versions of this gene not only have an increased risk of breast cancer but also may suffer from a more aggressive form of the disease if it spreads. The results suggest that vitamin D does indeed play a part in protecting the body against breast cancer, as past studies indicate.

Five to ten percent of breast cancer cases are due to already established gene mutations such as BRCA1. However, the underlying cause of breast cancer in women who do not have this gene and have no family history of the disease has remained a mystery. The study suggests that the mutation in the Vitamin D receptor gene may have a role to play in disease development in women who would not ordinarily be expected to develop the disease.8

 

 

B12 Shortage Linked to Cognitive Problems and Stroke


Not getting enough vitamin B12 may take a serious toll on the brain. Two new studies of the elderly link impairments of memory and reasoning with an indirect measure of vitamin B12 deficiency. Worse, brain scans reveal that those with signs of insufficient B12 are more likely to have shrinkage of brain tissue, vascular damage and patches of dead brain cells than are people with higher levels of the vitamin.

A third, ongoing study is recording neural changes — a slowing in the electrical signals conveying visual information — among people with B12 deficiency.

Conducted in seniors, mostly in their mid-70s to upper 80s (including a large group in Chicago), all three studies observed adverse changes even in people whose B12 levels in blood fall within the ostensibly normal, healthy range. While blood levels of B12 might have been normal, however, two biochemical markers of B12 deficiency often were not: Except in the visual study, brain problems largely correlated with rising blood concentrations of homocysteine and methylmalonic acid, or MMA, which accumulate in blood when cells of the body receive too little B12.

"The message of this Chicago study is watch your B12. It's important for the brain," says David Smith of the University of Oxford in England, whose team has begun investigating whether vitamin supplementation can slow cognitive decline in the elderly.

The new findings point to the apparent importance of brain changes in the absence of overt disease, says hematologist Ralph Carmel of New York Methodist Hospital, who was not involved in any of the new studies. The new data also argue against the common practice of relying exclusively on blood B12 levels to identify deficiency, he says.

In 2009, scientists at Rush University Medical Center in Chicago reported results from 516 randomly selected seniors showing that cognitive performance declined faster over a six-year period among those with elevated MMA. All had been taking part in an ongoing study of more than 6,100 men and women begun in 1993. One-third of the seniors, who were tested and surveyed about nutrition every three years, fell into this high MMA category, says Rush nutritionist Christine Tangney.

Now, in the September 27 Neurology, the same researchers report that high homocysteine values correlated with an accelerated shrinkage of brain tissue. Homocysteine blood levels also were linked to a higher number of what scientists call white matter hyperintensities — abnormal markings in magnetic-resonance imaging scans that are suspected of signaling patches of brain cells that died from blood starvation. High levels of hyperintensities mark people at risk of stroke, dementia and death.

The Rush team did the new work on a random subset of 121 of the original study participants, each about 80 years old, using a more sophisticated battery of 17 separate mental tests. While MMA levels again correlated with lower cognitive test scores, homocysteine levels did not.

MMA elevations marked people likely to score substantially worse than other seniors on how quickly they could assimilate information and ideas and on tests of "episodic memory" — a recall of recent events that can be colored by emotions. Two additional biomarkers of B12 deficiency were also linked to poorer episodic memory and with trouble recalling words.

Other researchers have shown how too little B12 might impact the brain at the cellular level. At the Experimental Biology meeting, April 10 in Washington, D.C., Joshua Miller of the UC Davis Medical Center in Sacramento reported data from 97 people linking subtle B12 deficiency with a slowing of certain visual signals to and their interpretation by the brain. Specifically, Miller looked at visual evoked potentials — the transmission of light signals from the eye to the nervous system. Signaling delays likely reflect a deterioration of the myelin sheath that insulates nerve fibers, he says.

Those in the lower half of B12 blood values had slower visual signaling speeds than did participants in the upper range, and the length of delays correlated with how low B12 measurements had been. The signal delay may indicate that tissues aren't getting enough B12 even when blood levels are in the normal range.

"So we could think of this, perhaps, as a canary in the coal mine," Miller says.

Miller adds that even though the evoked potentials his team measured in quick, noninvasive tests focused on the eyes, it's likely that whatever B12 is doing to these neurons occurs elsewhere as well. So, subtle changes in visual evoked potential might identify early neural damage, he says, "and predict if you're going to descend into dementia." Identified early enough, there might still be time to intervene with vitamin therapy, he says, and halt further damage.

Previous studies support the idea that B12 shortfalls, even subclinical ones, might damage nerve signaling generally, says Carmel. What's greatly needed now, he argues, are major B12-supplementation trials to establish whether vitamin therapy can substantially slow the development of dementia. To date, Carmel notes, Smith's team at Oxford appears to be the only group investigating that.

B-vitamin therapy "stopped memory decline in people who began with high homocysteine levels," Smith says. "It's an amazing result — much better than we could have expected."

His group gave B vitamins, including B6, B12 and folic acid, to 133 people over age 70 for two years. All participants had mild cognitive impairment. It's a well-defined syndrome, Smith notes, and "50 percent of people with it go on to develop dementia within five years."

The vitamin cocktail was chosen for its established efficacy in lowering homocysteine. Earlier work, Smith explains, "showed elevated homocysteine increases the risk of cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia." In the September 2010 PLoS One, the Oxford group had reported that, compared with seniors getting a placebo pill, the B-vitamin cocktail reduced brain shrinkage.

A new follow-up paper, posted online July 21 in the International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, shows "the biggest effect of supplementation was on memory," Smith says.

But as impressive as the new studies are, Carmel says, niggling questions remain about how B12 deficiency damages the brain — and whether it acts alone or in consort with deficiencies of other vitamins.

The body tends to absorb B12 poorly after age 50, and several medicines further diminish the vitamin's uptake. "So for many people, especially those with high homocysteine," Smith says, "it seems to make sense to take these vitamins."

 

 

Observations On the Dose and Administration of Ascorbic Acid When Employed Beyond the Range of a Vitamin In Human Pathology

Journal of Applied Nutrition Vol. 23, No's 3 & $, Winter 1971
By Fredrick R. Klenner, M.D., F.C.C.P.


Comment by RFC: This paper repeatedly refers to intravenous ascorbic acid. My personal experience, my talking with Klenner, and with his wife, Annie Klenner, who served as his nurse, would indicate that he means sodium ascorbate. See my article on how to make intravenous C solutions. I am especially indebted to Annie Klenner for her descriptions of how Fred made the intravenous solutions of sodium ascorbate.


Editor's Note:

Because of the unusually high amounts of ascorbic acid used in Dr. Klenner's treatment as reported in his paper, we asked him to verify amounts mentioned. Following is his answer:

"To the Editor of the ICAN Journal: This will confirm that all 'quantity' factors given in my paper are correct and can be confirmed from hospital and medical office records. The notation relative to 150 grams represents the amount used for reversing pathology in a given case and was the amount given over a period of 24 hours. (The I.V. was continuous.) This was given in three bottles of 5D water, decanting only enough from 1000 c.c. to be replaced by the 'C' ampoules.

"Recently the FDA has published a 'warning' that too much soda-ascorbate might be harmful, referring to the sodium ion. In reply to this I can state that for many years I have taken 10 to 20 grams of sodium ascorbate by mouth daily, and my blood sodium remains normal. These levels are checked by an approved laboratory. 20 grams each day and my urine remains at or just above pH 6."

Signed:

Fred R. Klenner, M.D.

 

Ancient History and Homespun Vitamin C Therapies

Folklore of past civilizations report that for every disease afflicting man there is an herb or its equivalent that will effect a cure. In Puerto Rico the story has long been told "that to have the health tree Acerola in one's back yard would keep colds out of the front door."[1] The ascorbic acid content of this cherry-like fruit is thirty times that found in oranges. In Pennsylvania, U.S.A., it was, and for many still is, Boneset, scientifically called Eupatorium perfoliatum[2]. Although it is now rarely prescribed by physicians, Boneset was the most commonly used medicinal plant of eastern United States. Most farmsteads had a bundle of dried Boneset in the attic or woodshed from which a most bitter tea would be meted out to the unfortunate victim of a cold or fever. Having lived in that section of the country we qualified many times for this particular drink. The Flu of 1918 stands out very forcefully in that the Klenners survived when scores about us were dying. Although bitter it was curative and most of the time the cure was overnight. Several years ago my curiosity led me to assay this "herbal medicine" and to my surprise and delight I found that we had been taking from ten to thirty grams of natural vitamin C at one time. Even then it was given by body weight. Children one cupful; adults two to three cupfuls. Cups those days held eight ounces. Twentieth century man seemingly forgets that his ancestors made crude. drugs from various plants and roots, and that these decoctions, infusions, juices, powders, pills and ointments served his purpose. Elegant pharmacy has only made the forms and shapes more acceptable.

Early specifications, action and dosages for administrations.

To understand the chemical behavior of ascorbic acid in human pathology, one must go beyond its present academic status either as a factor essential for life or as a substance necessary to prevent scurvy. This knowledge is elementary. Listen to what appeared in Food and Life Yearbook 1939, U.S. Department of Agriculture[3]: "In fact even when there is not a single outward symptom of trouble, a person may be in a state of vitamin C deficiency more dangerous than scurvy itself. When such a condition is not detected, and continues uncorrected, the teeth and bones will be damaged, and what may be even more serious, the blood stream is weakened to the point where it can no longer resist or fight infections not so easily cured as scurvy." It is true that without these infinitesimal amounts myriads of body processes would deteriorate and even come to a fatal halt.

Ascorbic acid has many important functions. It is a powerful oxidizer and when given in massive amounts; that is, 50 grams to 150 grams, intravenously, for certain pathological conditions, and "run in" as fast as 20 Gauge needle will allow, it acts as a "Flash Oxidizer,"[4] often correcting the pathology within minutes. Ascorbic acid is also a powerful reducing agent. Its neutralizing action on certain toxins, exotoxins, virus infections, endotoxins and histamine is in direct proportion to the amount of the lethal factor involved and the amount of ascorbic acid given. At times it is necessary to use ascorbic acid intramuscularly. It should always be used orally, when possible, along with the needle.

Scurvy historically the target; today's goal of high blood levels to cope with self-induced abuses and physiological traumas.

If one is to employ ascorbic acid intelligently, some index for requirements must be realized. Unfortunately there exists today a sort of "brand" called "minimum daily requirements." This illegitimate "child" has been co-fathered by the National Academy of Science and The National Research Council and represents a tragic error in judgment. There are many factors which increase the demand by the body for ascorbic acid, and unless these are appreciated, at least by physicians, there can be no real progress. It is vitally important that cognizance be taken of the demand by the body for ascorbic acid far beyond so-called scorbutic levels. Briefly these demands can be summarized:

  1. The age of the individual;
  2. Habits -- such as smoking, the use of alcohol, playing habits;
  3. Sleep, especially when induced artificially;
  4. Trauma.-- trauma caused by a pathogen, the trauma of work, the trauma of surgery, the trauma to the body produced accidentally or intentionally;
  5. Kidney threshold;
  6. Environment;
  7. Physiological stress;
  8. Season of the year;
  9. Loss in the stool;
  10. Variations in individual absorption;
  11. Variations in "binders" in commercial tablets;
  12. Body chemistry;
  13. Drugs;
  14. Pesticides;
  15. Body weight;
  16. Inadequate storage.

Flexible dosage standards explained as minimal standards.

With such knowledge it is no longer possible to accept a set numerical unit in terms of minimal daily requirements. This is true because of the simple fact that people are different and these same people experience different situations at various times. With ascorbic acid, today's adequate supply means little or nothing in terms of the needs for tomorrow. Let us start thinking in terms of maximum requirements. For too long a time we have under supplied our children and ourselves by accepting through negative ignorance and acquiescence so-called standards. Based on scant data on mammalian synthesis, available for the rat, a 70-Kg. individual would produce 1.8 grams[5] to 4.0 grams[6] of ascorbic acid per day in the unstressed condition. Under stress, up to 15.2 grams.[7] Compare this to the 70 mg recommended for daily requirements without stress and 200 mg for the simple stress of the obstetrical patient, and you will recognize the disparity and understand why we have been waging a one man war against the establishment in Washington for 23 years.

Ascorbic acid not synthesized by man

Work on mammalian biosynthesis of ascorbic acid indicates that the vitamin C story as is generally accepted represents an oversimplification of available evidence.[8,9,10] This often leads to misinterpretations and false impressions. It has been proposed that the biochemical lesion which produces the human need for exogenous sources of ascorbic acid, is the absence of the active enzyme, l-gulonolactone oxidase from the human liver[11]. A defect or loss of the gene controlling the synthesis of this enzyme in man, blocks the final phase in the series for converting glucose to ascorbic acid. Virus can mutate cells, X-Rays can do it and it can occur by chance. Such a mutation could have happened, denying all progenies of this mutated animal the ability to produce ascorbic acid. Survival demanded ascorbic acid from an exogenous source. This is not remarkable. Other recognized genetic diseases in which a missing enzyme causes a pathological syndrome, in man, are phenylketonuria, galactosemia and alkaptonuria.

It is worthy to note that Sealock and Goodland have ascribed to ascorbic acid the faculty of being the necessary co-enzyme in the metabolic oxidation of tyrosine. The velocity of the oxidation in this reaction is dependent upon the concentration of vitamin C. Tyrosine is essential in breaking down protein to usable amino acid. The scorbutic guinea-pig's liver is unable to oxidize tyrosine except in the presence of ascorbic acid. This suggests a lead in the study of the metabolic abnormality Alkaptonuria in humans. Ascorbic acid administration will correct the alkaptonuria of the scorbutic guinea pig. Its effect on human alkaptonuria has been inconsistent. The reason: Inadequate use of ascorbic acid.

Biochemist Irwin Stones' concept has practical value

The inability of man to manufacture his own ascorbic acid, due to genetic fault, has been called "hypoascorbemia" by Irwin Stone.[12] This is another reason for abolishing the present concept of daily minimal requirements. The physiological requirements in man are no different from other mammals capable of carrying out this synthesis.

Various procedures testing for the vitamin C levels and Requirements of the body.

Various tests have been employed to determine the degree of body saturation of vitamin C, but for the most part they have been misleading. Blood and urine samples analyzed with 2:6 dichlorophenol indophenol will give values roughly 7 percent less than when testing with dinitrophenol hydrazine. Gothlin advocates the capillary fragility test which is similar to the tourniquet test of Hess in results. Both can be used to estimate the quantity of vitamin C necessary to maintain capillary integrity. The intradermal test of Rotter as modified by Slobody[13] is again gaining new recruits. In principle it is the same as the lingual test of Ringdorf and Cheraskin[14] since both are based on the time required to decolorize dye. The lingual test is rapid and simple to perform but it requires a syringe with a 25 gauge needle and a stop watch. Since the dye methods depend on the reduction of the reagent by vitamin C, any substance having a reducing potential lower than the dye is a possible source of interference. Twenty years ago we elected to measure, as a therapeutic gauge, the amount of vitamin C in urine by borrowing on its ability to reduce qualitative Benedict's solution. A 2 plus Benedict's reaction in a known dextrose free urine was accepted as a standard. This test was helpful in gauging requirements for simple stress, but not accurate enough when using needle therapy. Fifteen years ago we developed the Silver Nitrate-Urine test[15]. This test employs 10 drops of 5 percent silver nitrate and 10 drops urine which is placed in a Wasserman tube. When read in two minutes it will give a color pattern showing white, beige, smoke gray or charcoal or various combinations of any two depending upon the degree of saturation. We have found this color index test is all one will need for establishing the correct amount of ascorbic acid to use by mouth, by muscle, by vein in the handling of all types of human pathology either as the specific drug or as an adjuvant with other antibiotics or neutralizing chemicals. In severe pathological conditions the urine sample, taken every four hours, must show a fine charcoal-like precipitation with a clear supernatant liquid if positive clinical results are to be realized. Spilling in the urine is not new. Abraham and Keefer have demonstrated that when penicillin is injected intravenously, excretions in the urine account for 60 percent of the administered dose.

Role played by ascorbic acid in intercellular reactions, neutralizing, possibly controlling virus production.

In 1935 Stanley isolated a crystalline protein possessing the properties of tobacco mosaic virus. It contained two substances, ribonucleic acid (RNA) and protein. The simple structure characteristic of tobacco mosaic virus was soon found to be a basic property of many human viruses such as coxsackie virus (which I believe to be the cause of Multiple Sclerosis), Echoviruses and polioviruses - they all contain only ribonucleic acid and protein. There exist minor variations. Adenoviruses contain deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and protein. Other viruses such as that causing influenza contain added lipid and polysaccharides. Deoxyribonucleic acid is used to program the large viruses, like mumps, ribonucleic acid is used to program the small viruses, like measles. The role of the protein coat is to protect the parasitic but unstable nucleic acid as it rides the "blood highway" or "lymphatic system" to gain specific cell entry. Pure viral nucleic acid without its protein coat can be inactivated by constituents of normal blood. There are several theories as to what happens after cell entry:

  • Once inside a given cell. the virus nucleic acid sheds its protein coat and proceeds to modify the host cell by either creating mutations or by directly substituting its own nucleic acid;
  • The infectious nucleic acid, after entering a human cell, retains its protein coat and starts to produce its own type protein coat[16] and viral nucleic acid, so that new units can either depart to enter other cells or by destruction of the cell, thus making the infection more severe;
  • The introduction of a foreign fragment of nucleic acid in the cell-virus interaction approach as postulated by Starr[17]. In the Starr theory there can exist cells with partial chromosome make-up and cells with multi-nuclei. Hiliary Kropowski holds that these partial cells are 'pseudo-virons'[18] and are found in some tumor-virus infections. A key factor in the Starr-Kropowski thinking is that the cell maintains its biological integrity to support virus development despite the abnormal morphology and genetic deficiency. If these invaded cells could be destroyed or the invader neutralized the illness would suddenly terminate. Ascorbic acid has the capability of entering all cells. Under normal circumstances its presence is beneficial to the cell, however, when the cell has been invaded by a foreign substance, like virus nucleic acid, enzymatic action by ascorbic acid contributes to the breakdown of virus nucleic acid to adenosine deaminase which converts adenosine to inosine. The net result is to lead to purines which are extensively catabolized and not to p+urines which are utilized for further nucleic acid. Ascorbic acid also joins with the available virus protein, making a new macromolecule which acts as the repressor factor. It has been demonstrated that when combined with the repressor, the operator gene, virus nucleic acid, cannot react with any other substance and cannot induce activity in the structural gene, therefore inhibiting the multiplication of new virus bodies. The tensile strength of the cell membrane is exceeded by these macromolecules with rupture and destruction. Another hypothesis is that vitamin C acts to create new "L" viruses which are impotent. Still another, that the "binding" alone is sufficient to destroy the virus.

Promptness of massive ascorbic acid in avoiding fatal encephalitis related to stubborn head and chest colds.

In 1953[19] we presented a case history and films of a patient with virus pneumonia. This patient was unconscious, with a fever of 106.8i³F (A. corrected) when admitted to the hospital. 140 grams ascorbic acid was given intravenously over a period of 72 hours at which time she was awake, sitting up in bed and taking fluids freely by mouth. The temperature was normal. Since that time we have observed a more deadly syndrome associated with a virus causing head and chest colds. This is one of the adenovirus striking in the area of the upper respiratory tract with resulting fever, sore throat and eyes, and when in children can cause fatal pneumonia. More often death is indirect by way of incipient encephalitis where the child can be dead in 30 minutes. These are the babies and children found dead in bed and attributed to suffocation [SIDS, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome]. It is suffocation but by way of a syndrome we observed and reported in 1957[20] which is similar to that found in cephalic tetanus-toxemia culminating in diaphragmatic spasm, with dyspnea and finally asphyxia.[21] By 1958[22] we had collected sufficient information from our office and hospital patients to catalog this deadly syndrome Into two important stages.

  • Stage 1
    • There is always a history of having had the "Flu" which lasted 48 to 96 hours complicated with extreme physical or mental distress; or
    • A mild cold, similar to an allergic rhinitis, which lingered on for several weeks but did not incapacitate the individual.
  • Stage 2, which is always sudden, will present itself in at least seven forms:
    • Convulsive seizures;
    • Extreme excitability resembling delirium tremens if an adult and with dancing of the eyeballs if a child;
    • Severe chill;
    • Strangling in the course of eating or drinking (bulbar type);
    • Collapse;
    • Stupor;
    • Hemiplegic type.

Other findings of this dramatic second stage are:

  • Rapid pulse;
  • Temperature can be normal, moderately elevated or high;
  • Respirations twice to three times normal and in some cases will be suggestive of air hunger;
  • Pupils will be moderately open and in some instances (hemiplegic) one will be markedly dilated;
  • Urine negative;
  • The white blood count running from 6,000 to 25,000 with a high poly count in the differential;
  • Young patients starting the second phase with a convulsion there has been not only a history of normal bowel movements but also an enema given at the time of first examination has produced a normal stool;
  • Bladder sphincter control was abnormal in our cases who convulsed or who were in coma.

Neurological Changes

It is apparent that the second stage of this syndrome is triggered by a breakthrough at the site of the blood-brain barrier. The time required for neurological changes to become evident is roughly comparable to the time necessary for similar neuropathology to be demonstrated following a severe head injury. Cerebral edema exists in both conditions. In my practice I start massive ascorbic acid therapy immediately. I have seen children dead in from 30 minutes to 2 hours because their attending physician was not impressed with their illness upon hospital admission. An autopsy on one of these patients showed bilateral pneumonitis - all one needs to spark a deadly encephalitis. To indicate just how common this syndrome presents itself, I relate here a newspaper account of a 15 year old girl who had a mild, lingering cold for several weeks. She attended a dance party one evening and except for a complaint of feeling extremely tired, she went to bed apparently well. She was found dead in bed the following morning. An autopsy showed bilateral pneumonia. How many times have you read such an account? This is why it is necessary for everybody to take adequate supplemental vitamin C to guard against such disasters.

Literature Research

In 1960 we decided to research the literature before writing our paper. "Virus Encephalitis As A Sequel Of The Pneumonias."[22] Rosenfield in 1903 described a similar syndrome under the caption "Brain Purpura or Hemorrhagic Encephalitis." Comby, in 1907, was the first to call attention to the interesting "metastic" sequela of the pneumonias. Baker and Noran in 1945 enumerated five groups, each showing certain definite clinical characteristics which may be of both diagnostic and prognostic significance in relation to this virus syndrome. [23]

  • Symptoms of a nonspecific nature - headache, vomiting, irritability;
  • Delirious type;
  • Convulsive type;
  • Lethargic type;
  • Hemiplegic type.

These groups plus two additional types, namely:

  • Chill - blood invasion type;
  • Collapse,

were as we reported them, independently, in the Tri-State Medical Journal, October 1958. Their results: Some recovered, some died and still others lived as "vegetation" mental cripples. All of our patients recovered. Thirteen years from the time of the Baker-Noran report to the time of our report and 13 years from the time of our report to the present time. This makes the issue urgent. Physicians must recognize the inherent danger of the lingering head or chest cold and appreciate the importance of early massive vitamin C therapy.

How does the brain become involved in encephalitis?--some speculations.

Clinical problems such as these groups present, leads one to speculate on the pathways in which the virus gains entrance into the brain. We can summarize:

  • Through the olfactory nerves;
  • Through the portals of the stomach from material swallowed, either pulmonary or upper respiratory drainage;
  • Direct extension from otitis media or from mastoid cells;
  • The blood stream. Arriving in the brain the virus goes through the blood cerebrospinal fluid barrier and/or the blood brain barrier by one of three ways:
    • Electrical charge;
    • Chemical lysis of tissue;
    • Osmosis.

Bakay[24] reported that the permeability of the blood-brain barrier can be changed by introducing various toxic agents into the blood circulation. Chambers and Zweifach[25] emphasized the importance of the intercellular cement of the capillary wall in regulating permeability of the blood vessels of the central nervous system. In this syndrome the toxic substance is an adenovirus. Ascorbic acid will repair and maintain the integrity of the capillary wall.

Burns - degrees explained and some therapy rational.

In the treatment of burns ascorbic acid, in sufficient amounts, reflects itself as a truly miracle substance. In the early forties, when I was using ascorbic acid, intramuscularly, in treating bacillary dysentery, shiga type, with excellent results, Lund, Lam and many others were using, what they called, massive doses of ascorbic acid in the treatment of burns. One or two grams each day, in fluids, was the recognized dose. Burns are at the beginning first degree and some remain as just an erythema. Many times the first degree burn progresses rapidly to the second degree stage and remains as "blisters". Still others go on to third degree which usually is more pronounced on the third-plus post-burn day. There is a fourth stage which results from lack of knowledge in treatment. It terminates with skin grafting and plastic surgery. We believe that ascorbic acid will eliminate the fourth stage and the third stage if used as we will later program.

Burns - continued descriptive and related therapies.

The pathologic physiology of a burn wound from the moment of the accident is in a state of dynamic change until the wound heals or the patient dies. The primary consideration is the phenomenon of blood sludging originally recognized by Knisely in 1945.[26,27] Initially there is intravascular agglutination of red blood cells into distinctly visible, smooth, hard, rigid, basic masses. Lofstrom in 1959 demonstrated that the oxygen uptake by the tissues is greatly reduced because of the sludging and therefore reduced rate of flow. Berkeley[28] in 1960 concluded that this phenomenon of sludging or agglutination results in capillary thrombosis in the area of the burn, extending proximally to involve the large arterioles and venules and thereby creating tissue destruction greater than that originally produced by the burn. Anoxia produces added tissue destruction. Lund and Levenson[28] found that after severe burns there is considerable alteration in the metabolism of ascorbic acid as shown by a low concentration of ascorbic acid in the plasma either with the patient fasting or after saturation tests and also low urinary excretion of vitamin C either with the patient fasting or after the injection of test doses. The extent of the abnormality closely paralleled the severity of the burn. Bergman[30] reported an increase demand for ascorbic acid in burns especially when epithelization and formation of granulation tissue are taking place. Lam[31] also reported in 1941 a marked decrease in the plasma ascorbic acid concentration in patients with severe burns. Klasson[32] although limiting the amount of ascorbic acid to a dose range of 300 mg to 2000 mg daily, in divided doses, found that it hastened the healing of wounds by producing healthy granulation tissue and also that it reduced local edema. He rationalized that ascorbic acid used locally as a 2% dressing possessed astringent properties similar to hydrogen peroxide. He also reported that antibiotic therapy was rarely necessary.

Severe burns and related therapy.

Harlen Stone[33] suggested the use of gentamicin in major burns to lower the sepsis caused by pseudomonas. Absorption of its exotoxin from the infected burn wound inhibits the bacterial defense mechanism of the reticuloendothelial system. Death can result either from the toxemia alone or from an associated septicemia. We have found that the secret in treating burns can be summarized in five steps:

  1. The use of the "old covered wagon" type cradle when indicated, with three 25 watt bulbs. The patient controls the heat by turning on and off the first bulb as needed to keep warm. No garments or dressings are allowed;
  2. The employment of a 3% ascorbic acid solution as a spray over the entire area of the burn. The spray can be applied with a Devilbis unit using an ordinary portable pressure pump. The old type "flit gun" can also be used or even a 50 c.c. syringe with a 20 gauge needle. The 3% solution is used every 2 to 4 hours for a period of roughly five days;
  3. The use of vitamin A and D ointment over the area of the burn and this is now alternated, q4h with the 3% ascorbic acid solution;
  4. The administration of massive doses of ascorbic acid by vein and by mouth. 500 mg per Kg. body weight diluted to at least 18 c.c. per gram vitamin C using 5% dextrose in water, saline in water or Ringers solution and for the initial injection, run in as fast as a 20 gauge needle or catheter will carry the flow. Cut-downs are frequently necessary and the foot-ankle area is recommended. Vitamin C solution is repeated every 8 hours for the first several days, then at 12 hour intervals. Ascorbic acid, by mouth, is given to tolerance. Loose stools is accepted as this index. Using large doses of ascorbic acid I.V. will necessitate the administration of at least one gram calcium gluconate, daily, to replace free calcium ions removed in the breakdown chemical action as ascorbic acid goes to dehydroascorbic acid, then to ketogulonic acid and later to oxalic acid as the calcium salt;
  5. Supportive treatment; that is, whole blood and maintaining electrolyte balance.

If seen early after the burn there will be no infections and no eschar formations. This eliminates fluid formation, since the eschar traps will not exist and there will be no distal edema because the venous and lymphatic systems will remain open. There will be no arterial obstruction and no nerve compression. Pseudomonas will not be a problem, since ascorbic acid destroys the exotoxin systemically and locally. Even if the burn is seen late when pseudomonas is a major problem the gram negative bacilli will be destroyed in a few days leaving a clean healthy surface. I have seen eschars 2 inches wide and 1/2 inch thick, severely infected so that stench had to be controlled with deodorizing sprays, melt away when employing the method outlined. Ascorbic acid also eliminates pain so that opiates or their equivalent are not required. In extremely extensive burns that involve back and front of the patient, the "Hoverbed"[35] employed by the British should be considered. It uses the same principle as the hovercraft to lift a solid object. What has been overlooked in burns is that there are many living epithelial cells in the areas that grossly look like "raw muscle." With the use of ascorbic acid these cells are kept viable, will multiply and soon meet with other proliferating units in the establishment of a new integument.

Regarding personal and environmental pollution-carbon monoxide.

We are all plagued with varying degrees of chronic carbon monoxide poisoning. This is the price we pay for putting our "railroads" on our highways, smoking and being too lazy to walk. Small amounts of carbon monoxide, if constantly maintained in the alveoli, can produce serious effects. Carbon monoxide in the inspired air leads to oxygen deficiency in the tissues causing extreme exhaustion. The affinity of carbon monoxide for hemoglobin is roughly 300 times as great as that for oxygen. In addition to active replacement of oxy-hemoglobin the presence of some proportion of carboxy-hemoglobin decreases the dissociability of such oxy-hemoglobin as remains. Carbon monoxide can be released from hemoglobin if the patient is exposed to high pressure of oxygen, 93% along with 7% carbon dioxide. This is not always available. Ascorbic acid in the blood is constantly losing molecules of water. Perfectly dry carbon monoxide and oxygen cannot unite to form carbon dioxide, but carbon monoxide and water may give rise to carbon dioxide in the complete absence of oxygen. The reactions which take place are CO + H2O HCOOH CO2 + H2 (Wright). Here the oxygen of the water has been used to oxidize carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide with the liberation of hydrogen. Glutathione may facilitate this cellular oxidation by acting as a hydrogen acceptor (Hopkins). Clinical experience suggests that if sufficient ascorbic acid is suddenly placed into the blood stream - 12 grams to 50 grams - that through "Flash Oxidation" a concentration of oxygen is made high enough to pull carbon monoxide from hemoglobin to form carbon dioxide. This rapidly formed carbon dioxide acts with the high oxygen tension to serve the same purpose as when given by "mask," further enhancing the chemical action taking place. Ascorbic acid will also prevent residuals such as paralysis, blindness, interference with sensations, muscle spasms or twitchings which in some cases can be permanent.

Primary and lasting benefits in pregnancy.

Observations made on over 300 consecutive obstetrical cases using supplemental ascorbic acid, by mouth, convinced me that failure to use this agent in sufficient amounts in pregnancy borders on malpractice. The lowest amount of ascorbic acid used was 4 grams and the highest amount 15 grams each day. (Remember the rat-no stress manufactures equivalent "C" up to 4 grams and with stress up to 15.2 grams). Requirements were roughly 4 grams first trimester, 6 grams second trimester and 10 grams third trimester. Approximately 20 percent required 15 grams, each day, during last trimester. Eighty percent of this series received a booster injection of 10 grams, intravenously, on admission to the hospital. Hemoglobin levels were much easier to maintain. Leg cramps were less than three percent and always was associated with "getting out" of Vitamin C tablets. Striae gravidarum was seldom encountered and when it was present there existed an associated problem of too much eating and too little walking. The capacity of the skin to resist the pressure of an expanding uterus will also vary in different individuals. Labor was shorter and less painful. There were no postpartum hemorrhages. The perineum was found to be remarkably elastic and episiotomy was performed electively. Healing was always by first intention and even after 15 and 20 years following the last child the firmness of the perineum is found to be similar to that of a primigravida in those who have continued their daily supplemental vitamin C. No patient required catheterization. No toxic manifestations were demonstrated in this series. There was no cardiac stress even though 22 patients of the series had rheumatic hearts. One patient in particular was carried through two pregnancies without complications. She had been warned by her previous obstetrician that a second pregnancy would terminate with a maternal death. She received no ascorbic acid with her first pregnancy. This lady has been back teaching school for the past 10 years. She still takes 10 grams of ascorbic acid daily. Infants born under massive ascorbic acid therapy were all robust. Not a single case required resuscitation. We experienced no feeding problems. The Fultz quadruplets were in this series. They took milk nourishment on the second day. These babies were started on 50 mg ascorbic acid the first day and, of course, this was increased as time went on. Our only nursery equipment was one hospital bed, an old, used single unit hot plate and an equally old 10 quart kettle. Humidity and ascorbic acid tells this story. They are the only quadruplets that have survived in southeastern United States. Another case of which I am justly proud is one in which we delivered 10 children to one couple. All are healthy and good looking. There were no miscarriages. All are living and well. They are frequently referred to as the vitamin C kids, in fact all of the babies from this series were called "Vitamin C Babies" by the nursing personnel--they were distinctly different.

How concerned should we be about oxalic acid and kidney stones? A technical explanation.

One of the "scare" weapons used by the critics on high daily doses of ascorbic acid is the oxalic acid-kidney stone hypothesis. Meakins[36] states that the chief factors in the formation of renal calculi are perversions of metabolic processes, infection and stasis in the urinary tract. There are two schools of thought on stone formation: 1) That there is a central nucleus of colloids on which the crystalloids are precipitated; 2) That the crystalloids are deposited from the urine in which they are present in concentrated solution, in which salt and hydrogen ion concentrations are important factors. In all cases stasis and a concentrated urine appear to be the chief physiological factors. The only way that oxalic acid can be produced from ascorbic acid is through splitting of the lactone ring. This happens above pH5. The reaction of urine when 10 grams of vitamin C is taken daily is usually pH6. Oxalic acid precipitates out of solution only from a neutral or alkaline solution-pH7 to pH10. Kelli and Zilva[37] reported that "Nutrition experiments showed that dehydroascorbic acid is protected in vivo from rapid transformation to the antiscorbutically impotent diketogulonic acid from which oxalic acid is derived." Values reported in the literature for normal 24 hour urinary oxalate excretions for humans range from 14 mg to 56 mg. Lamden et al.[38] found in a group of volunteers that the ingestion of 9 grams ascorbic acid daily resulted in oxalate spills as high as 68 mg for 24 hours and in the controls without extra vitamin C the high was 64 mg for a 24 hour period.

These critics have overlooked the individual with diabetes mellitus. The amount of oxalic acid found in the diabetic patient approximates that found in the urine of a normal person taking 10 grams vitamin C each day. With the diabetic we find a paradox. Give this individual 10 grams ascorbic acid daily, by mouth, and the urinary oxalate excretion remains relatively unchanged. Diabetics are known for their diuresis. The individual who takes 10 or more grams of vitamin C each day will find that this organic compound is an excellent diuretic. No urinary stasis; no urine concentration.

The ascorbic acid kidney stone story is a myth. Methylene blue will dissolve calcium oxalate stones giving 65 mg orally 2 to 3 times a day. (Dr. M. J. Vernon Smith: Med. World News, Dec. 4, 1970)

Why death from insect and snake bites?

It is estimated that 6500 deaths occur each year in the United States from snake bite. Many more from various flying insects, spiders, certain plants and some caterpillars.These are needless deaths. Several factors are at work in these pathologies:

  • The tox-albumin of the snake bite, like the copperhead or rattler;
  • Formic acid plus a toxin with a protein cover, called proteotoxin by Arthus,[39] such as found in bees and wasps;
  • Neurotoxin from the Black Widow, the Fiddle Spider and snakes like the Cobra and Coral;
  • Production of histamine, especially in the more severe stings and bites.

Wells[40] in 1925 called the poison of certain spiders and snakes zootoxins and of poisonous plants, phytotoxins. Ford[41] in 1911 reported three classes of toxins in plants and fungi:

  • Nerve poisons-muscarine;
  • Those causing structural changes in the viscera with resulting fatty degeneration;
  • Gastrointestinal irritants.

Ascorbic acid to the rescue.

It is a demonstrated principle that the production of histamine and other end products from deaminized cell proteins released by injury to cells are a cause of shock. The clinical value of ascorbic acid in combating shock is explained when we realize that the deaminizing enzymes from the damaged cells are inhibited by vitamin C.[42] It has been shown by Chambers and Pollock[43] that mechanical damage to a cell results in pH changes which reverse the cell enzymes from constructive to destructive activity. The pH changes spread to other cells. This destructive activity releases histamine a major shock producing substance. The presence of vitamin C inhibits this enzyme transition into the destructive phase. Clark and Rossiter[44] reported that conditions of shock and stress cause depletion of the ascorbic acid content of the plasma. As with the virus bodies, ascorbic acid also joins with the protein factor of these toxins effecting quick destruction.

The answer to these emergencies is simple. Large amounts of ascorbic acid 350 mg to 700 mg per Kg. body weight given intravenously. In small patients, where veins are at a premium, ascorbic acid can easily be given intramuscularly in amounts up to two grams at one site. Several areas can be used with each dose given. Ice held to the gluteal muscles until red, almost eliminates the pain. We always reapply the ice for a few minutes after the injection. Ascorbic acid is also given, by mouth, as follow-up treatment. Every emergency room should be stocked with vitamin C ampoules of sufficient strength so that time will never be counted-as a factor in saving a life. The 4 gram, 20 c.c, ampoule and 10 gram 50 c.c. ampoule must be made available to the physician.

A case history-success due to promptness with a twelve gram injection.

As an example of the lethal effect of certain stings and bites, I briefly relate a case history. An adult male came to my office complaining of severe chest pain and the inability to take a deep breath. Stated that he had been "stung" or "bitten" 10 minutes earlier. Thinking that it was a Black Widow and not bothering to look for fang marks, due to the gravity of the situation, I gave one gram calcium gluconate intravenously. This gave no relief. He begged for help saying he was dying. He was becoming cyanotic [blue or livid skin from lack of oxygen]. Twelve grams of vitamin C was quickly pulled into a 50 c.c. syringe and with a 20 gauge needle was given intravenously as fast as the plunger could be pushed. Even before the injection was completed, he exclaimed, "Thank God". The poison had been neutralized that rapidly. He was sent home to locate the "culprit". He soon returned with an object that looked like a mouse. It was 1 1/2 inches long with long brown hair. There was a dark ridge down the entire back. It had seven pairs of propelling units and a tail much like a mouse. The following day I took "The Thing" to Duke University where it was identified as the Puss Caterpillar. This unusual caterpillar left 44 red raised marks on the back of its victim. Except for vitamin C this individual would have died from shock and asphyxiation.

Some concern answered regarding high dosage of ascorbic acid.

Merton Lamden, a biochemist, writing in the New England Journal of Medicine, Feb. 11, 1971, expresses grave doubts about the safety of large doses of ascorbic acid taken by mouth. He gives a report by Paterson[45] on the diabetogenic effect of dehydroascorbic acid on rats. Paterson in 1950 employed only the Ketone formula of ascorbic acid, dehydroascorbic acid, which he administered, undiluted, intravenously, in extraordinary amounts. His results were based on giving rats, weighing 100 grams to 120 grams, dehydroascorbic acid in doses from 20 to 50 mg. This transposed to a man weighing 70 kilograms would represent a dose of 3,500 grams-roughly 5,000 grams ascorbic acid. Obviously the work has no relationship with the ingestion of ascorbic acid by humans. I have taken from 10 to 20 grams of ascorbic acid daily since my last visit to this college - 18 years ago. I do not have diabetes mellitus and if I might digress a moment, neither have I had a kidney stone.

Diabetes mellitus response to 10 grams ascorbic acid by mouth.

Over the past 17 years we have studied the effect of 10 grams by mouth, in patients with diabetes mellitus. We found that every diabetic not taking supplemental vitamin C could be classified as having sub-clinical scurvy. For this reason they find it difficult to heal wounds. The diabetic patient will use the supplemental vitamin C for better utilization of his insulin. It will assist the liver in the metabolism of carbohydrates and to reinstate his body to heal wounds like normal individuals. We found that 60% of all diabetics could be controlled with diet and 10 grams ascorbic acid daily. The other 40% will need much less needle insulin and less oral medication. Contrary to what Medical News Letter, (Vol. 12 # 26, Dec. 25 1970) carried to the physicians the Tes-Tape is accurate in testing urine samples.

Observations following post-surgery cases on blood plasma levels of ascorbic acid. Deduction is evident of the need for substantial amounts of ascorbic acid prior to surgery.

In 1960 and again in 1966, in papers delivered before the Tri-State Medical Society, I called attention to the "scurvy" levels of ascorbic acid found in postoperative patients. Plasma levels recorded before starting anesthesia and after cessation of such inhalants and completion of surgery remained unchanged. This has lead many to believe that surgery created little or no demand for supplemental "C". We found, however, that samples of blood taken six hours after surgery showed drops of approximately 1/4 the starting amount and at 12 hours the levels were down to one-half. Samples taken 24 hours later, without added ascorbic acid to fluids, showed levels 3/4 lower than the original samples. Baylor University research team reported similar findings in 1965. Bartlett, Jones[48] and others reported that in spite of low levels of plasma ascorbic acid at time of surgery, normal wound healing may be produced by adequate vitamin C therapy during the post-operative period. Lanman and Ingalls[47] showed that the tensile strength of healing wounds is lowered in the presence of "scurvy plasma levels". Schumacher[48] reported that the preoperative use of as little as 500 mg of vitamin C given orally "was remarkably successful in preventing shock and weakness" following dental extractions. Many other investigators have shown in both laboratory and clinical studies, that optimal primary wound healing is dependent to a large extent upon the vitamin C content of the tissues.

In 1949, it was my privilege to assist at an abdominal exploratory laparotomy. A mass of small viscera was found "glued together". The area was so friable that every attempt at separation produced a torn intestine. After repairing some 20 tears the surgeon closed the cavity as a hopeless situation. Two grams ascorbic acid was given by syringe every two hours for 48 hours and then 4 times each day. In 36 hours the patient was walking the halls and in seven days was discharged with normal elimination and no pain. She has outlived her surgeon by many years. We recommend that all patients take 10 grams ascorbic acid each day. Where this is not done and the surgery is elective, then 10 grams by mouth should be given for several weeks prior to surgery. At least 30 grams should be given, daily, in solutions, post-operatively, until oral medication is allowed and tolerated.

Mononucleosis aided by ascorbic acid.

After studying hundreds of college students, Yale researchers have evidence that strengthens the link between mononucleosis and Epstein-Barr virus, a herpes-like agent also associated with Burkitt lymphoma.[49] Large doses of intravenous "C" has a striking influence on the course of mononucleosis. In one patient who was given the last rites of her church, the girls mother took things into her own hands when the attending physician refused to give ascorbic acid. In each bottle of intravenous fluids she would quickly "tap in" 20 to 30 grams vitamin C. The patient made an uneventful recovery. Her mother has her B.S. in Nursing and has been a long time advocate of massive "C" therapy.

Could ascorbic acid have anti-cancer features?

Schlegel[50] from Tulane University has been using 1.5 grams ascorbic acid daily to prevent recurrences of cancer of the bladder. He and biochemist Pipkin have been able to demonstrate that in the presence of ascorbic acid, carcinogenic metabolites will not develop in the urine. They suggest that spontaneous tumor formation is the result of faulty tryptophan metabolism while urine is retained in the bladder. Schlegel termed ascorbic acid "An Anticancer Vitamin". Along this line Glick and Hosoda[51] reported on work by Von Numers and Pettersson that the depletion of mast cells from guinea pigs skin was due to ascorbic acid deficiency. The possibilities indicated are that vitamin C is necessary either directly or indirectly for formation of mast cells, or for their maintenance once formed or both. Ascorbic acid will control myelocytic leukemia provided 25 to 30 grams are taken orally each day.

One can only speculate on what massive therapy would do in all forms of cancer. Many pathologic conditions are cured by giving 5 million to 100,000 million units of penicillin as an intravenous drip over a period of 4 to 6 weeks. How long must we wait for someone to start continuous ascorbic acid drip for 2 to 3 months, giving 100 to 300 grams each day, for various malignant conditions?

Barbiturate patients in shock normalized with ascorbic acid.

Clemmesen[52] states that the important principles in management of barbiturate poisoning are anti-shock therapy, continuous oxygen and patent airways. Hadden et al.[53] suggest six measures as supportive treatment. An intensive care unit would be necessary to carry out these functions. All one really need do is give adequate ascorbic acid therapy. One patient who had taken 2640 mg Lotusate (talbutal) was seen in the emergency room with a blood pressure of 60/0. Twelve grams vitamin C was given intravenously with a 50 c.c. syringe and then the needle attached to a bottle of 5D water containing 50 grams ascorbic acid. Within 10 minutes the blood pressure was 100/60 demonstrating the effect of vitamin C on shock. A second bottle of 250 c.c. 5D water containing one gram emivan was started in the other arm. The patient was awake in 3 hours, taking juice with "C" added. She received 125 grams ascorbic acid by vein in 12 hours. Ascorbic acid not only assists with hepatic metabolism but also as a major diuretic flushes these compounds out by way of the kidneys. Nasal oxygen running 6 liters per minute was also employed. Another patient who had masked 2400 mg seconal with paraldehyde was awake after 42 grams of ascorbic acid had been given by vein as fast as a 20 gauge needle could carry the flow. She received 75 grams vitamin C by vein and 30 grams by mouth in a 24 hour period.

Cholesterol not a problem, when daily intake of ascorbic acid is high.

Mention should be made of the role[54] played by vitamin C as a regulator of the rate at which cholesterol is formed in the body; deficiency of the vitamin speeding the formation of this substance. In experimental work, guinea pigs fed a diet free of ascorbic acid showed a 600 percent acceleration in cholesterol formation in the adrenal glands. Ten grams or more each day and then eat all the eggs you want. That is my schedule and my cholesterol remains normal, Russia has published many articles demonstrating these same benefits.

Lockjaw relieved.

Ascorbic acid has no equal as a adjuvant with other drugs in many conditions. With Tolserol it is curative in the treatment of Lockjaw. Both drugs must be used in proper amounts. In our case 1000 mg Tolserol given intravenously to a boy weighing 20 Kg. was the optimal amount to use. In 48 hours he was given 90 grams ascorbic acid and 3000 mg Tolserol, all intravenously.[55] Jungeblut[56] reported that vitamin C, when added to tetanus toxin "in vitro", brings about inactivation of the toxin.

Two cases of Trichinosis was treated and cured using Vitamin C: and Para-Aminobenzoic acid.[57] Although the temperature curve was returned to normal in 36 hours it was found that nine days of treatment was necessary for permanent cures.

Infectious hepatitis relieved.

Viral hepatitis needs brief mentioning. There are two types: 1) Infectious hepatitis; 2) Needle hepatitis. Physical activity has always been considered to increase the severity and prolong the course of the disease.[58] In Vietnam, Freebern and Repsher showed that pick-and-shovel details had no effects on the 199 controls as against 199 kept at bed rest.[59] One thing is certain. Given massive intravenous ascorbic acid therapy and patients are well and back to work in from 3 to 7 days. In these cases the vitamin is also employed by mouth as follow-up therapy. Dr. Bauer at the University Clinic, Basel, Switzerland, reported that just 10 grams daily, intravenously, proved the best treatment available.

Ascorbic acid therapy applied to various maladies.

We could continue indefinitely extolling the merits of ascorbic acid.

  • Boyd and Campbell[60] reported excellent results in the healing of corneal ulcers even though their massive doses was 1.5 grams daily. In one case of a corneal burn from the phosphorus off an old time match, the pain was relieved immediately with the intravenous injection of 12 grams vitamin C with a 50 c.c syringe. One gram was prescribed each hour for 50 grams. The cornea was normal in less than 24 hours.
  • One single injection of ascorbic acid calculated at 500 mg per Kg. body weight will reverse heat stroke.
  • One to three injections of the vitamin in a dose range of 400 mg Kg. body weight will effect a dramatic cure in Virus Pancarditis.
  • One gram taken every one to two hours during exposure will prevent sunburn.
  • Intravenous injections will quickly relieve the pain and erythema, even the second degree burns when precautions are not taken.
  • One to three injections of 400 mg per Kg. given every eight hours will "dry up" chicken-pox in 24 hours.
  • If nausea is present it will stop the nausea.

These injections are usually given with a syringe in a dilution of one gram to 5 c.c fluid. This concentration will produce immediate thirst. This is prevented by having the patient drink a glass of juice just before giving the injection.

  • 40 grams ascorbic acid by vein and 1000 mg to 2000 mg vitamin B1 intramuscularly will neutralize the person intoxicated by alcohol and will save the life if one drinks after using Antibuse.
  • 5 per cent ointment using a water soluble base will cure acute fever blisters if applied 10 or more times a day and we have removed several small basal cell epithelioma has with a 30 percent ointment.
  • Dr. Virno[61] at the eye clinic, University of Rome, Italy, reported very promising results in glaucoma with a dose schedule of 100 mg per Kg. body weight taken after meals and bed hour. He also reported that these large doses have proved to be safe.
  • In arthritis at least 10 grams daily and those taking 15 to 25 grams daily will experience commensurate benefit. Supportive treatment must also be given. Repair of collagenous tissue is dependent of adequate ascorbic acid.
  • Complications of smallpox vaccination are usually handled by adequate oral ascorbic acid. Several times we found it necessary to give the "C" intravenously along with Adenosine. Twenty percent ichthammol used locally with vaccinia necrosum is good psychology.
  • In herpes zoster two grams vitamin C intramuscularly and 50 mg Adenosine 5-Monophosphoric acid, aqueous solution, also intramuscularly every 12 hours. Compound tincture benzoin locally is helpful.
  • In massive "shingles" ascorbic acid should also be given by vein. Always as much by mouth as can be tolerated. Heavy metal intoxication is also resolved with adequate vitamin C therapy.

General all around benefits of one to ten grams ascorbic acid per day.

It has been suggested that ascorbic acid metabolism may be an index of total metabolism and thus serve as a general diagnostic guide. Adults taking at least 10 grams of ascorbic acid daily, and children under ten at least one gram for each year of life will find that the brain will be clearer, the mind more active, the body less wearied and the memory more retentive.

Summary

The types of pathology treated with massive doses of ascorbic acid run the entire gamut of medical knowledge. Body needs are so great that so called minimal daily requirements must be ignored. A genetic error is the probable cause for our inability to manufacture ascorbic acid, thus requiring exogenous sources of vitamin C. Simple dye or chemical test are available for checking individual needs. Ascorbic acid destroys virus bodies by taking up the protein coat so that new units cannot be made, by contributing to the break-down of virus nucleic acid with the result of controlled purine metabolism. Its action in dealing with virus pneumonia and virus encephalitis has been outlined. The clinical use of vitamin C in pneumonia has a very sound foundation. In experimental tests monkeys kept on a vitamin C free diet all died of pneumonia while those with adequate diets remained healthy.[62] Many investigators have shown an increased need for ascorbic acid in this condition.[63,64] Brody in 1953 after studying vitamin C and colds in college students advised that ascorbic acid be given early and often in sufficient amounts. Regnier[65] reporting in review of Allergy found that the larger the dose of ascorbic acid the better were the results. Our findings resulted in a schedule of one gram each hour for 48 hours and then 10 grams each day by mouth. Those under ten at least one gram for each year of life.

Virus Encephalitis.

Virus encephalitis is a deadly syndrome and must be treated heroically with intravenous and/or intramuscular injections of ascorbic acid. We recommend a dose schedule of from 350 mg to 700 mg per Kg. body weight diluted to at least 18 c.c. of 5D water to each gram of "C". In small children, 2 and 3 grams can be given intramuscularly, every 2 hours. An ice cap to the buttock will prevent soreness and induration. Ascorbic acid in amounts under 400 mg per Kg. body weight can be administered intravenously with a syringe in dilutions of 5 c.c. to each one gram provided the ampoule is buffered with sodium bicarbonate with sodium Bisulfite added. As much as 12 grams can be given in this manner with a 50 c.c. syringe. Larger amounts must be diluted with "bottle" dextrose or "saline" solutions and run in by needle drip. This is true because amounts like 20 to 25 grams which can be given with a 100 c.c. syringe can suddenly dehydrate the cerebral cortex so as to produce convulsive movements of the legs. This represents a peculiar syndrome, symptomatic epilepsy, in which the patient is mentally clear and experiences no discomfiture except that the lower extremities are in mild convulsion. This epileptiform type seizure will continue for 20 plus minutes and then abruptly stop. Mild pressure on the knees will stop the seizure so long as pressure is maintained. If still within the time limit of the seizure the spasm will reappear by simply withdrawing the hand pressure. I have seen this in two patients receiving 26 grams intravenously with a 100 c.c. syringe on the second injection. One patient had poliomyelitis, the other malignant measles. Both were adults. I have duplicated this on myself to prove no after effects. Intramuscular injections are always 500 mg to 1 c.c. solution. With continuous intravenous injections of large amounts of ascorbic acid, at least one gram of calcium gluconate must be added to the fluids each day. This is done because we have found that massive doses of ascorbic acid pulls free calcium ions from the vicinity of the platelets or from the calcium-prothrombin complex as the lactone ring of dehydroascorbic acid is opened. The first sign of calcium ion loss is "nose bleeding". This differs from the nosebleed found, at times, in cases of chicken pox or measles. Here it represents frank scurvy from vitamin C deficiency. The pathology being "Capillary fragility".[66]

Burns.

A new treatment for burns has been outlined, which if followed will eliminate skin grafting and plastic surgery. It is probably too simple to gain early acceptance. The literature has been suggesting the value of ascorbic acid in burns for many years. Proper local application and the amount for systemic usage has been misleading. One only need see one case properly treated with ascorbic acid to appreciate its importance. If ascorbic acid can destroy the exotoxin of tetanus, as Jungeblut demonstrated, it can also destroy the exotoxin of Pseudomonas. Ascorbic acid plays an important role in maintaining fluid balance in the body. Ruskin pointed out that the vitamin activates an enzyme arginase, which breaks down the amino acid arginine, resulting in production of urea which is one key to tissue fluid balance.

Pregnancy.

The simple stress of pregnancy demands supplemental vitamin C. This amount will vary with the individual. The silver nitrate-urine text will simplify these findings. Vitamin C seems especially concerned with mesenchymal tissue. When one considers the demands of the fetus and infant, especially premature babies, it is obvious that high vitamin C intakes are required during pregnancy because this "parasite" will drain available "C" from the mother. Greenblatt[67] reports excellent results following the oral administration of vitamin C in the therapy of habitual abortion. In my own practice I was able to take women who had had as many as five abortions without a successful pregnancy and carry them through two and three uneventful pregnancies with the use of supplemental vitamin C. The German literature is "stacked" with articles recommending high doses of vitamin C during gestation because they believe that this substance is of great benefit in influencing the health of the mother and in preventing infections. The vital contribution of ascorbic acid to the body tissues can be summed up in the formation and maintenance of normal intercellular material, especially in the connective tissue, bones, teeth, and blood vessels. Genetic errors might be prevented if prospective mothers were advised to take 10 or more grams of ascorbic acid daily. It is significant that we found in the simple stress of pregnancy, a normal physiological process, that equivalent requirements paralleled those found in the rat when under stress. Experiments by King et al.[68] have shown that the need for supplemental vitamin C begins with the embryo.

Kidney Stones.

The "scare" factor of large doses of ascorbic vs. kidney stones has been laid to rest. Since the urine is usually pH6, one can see that the opening of the lactone ring is a slow process. This reaction takes place in tissues and is probably regulated by the amount of glutathione present. The important considerations are that one must have a concentrated urine, that stasis must be a factor and that the urine must be alkaline for any appreciable amounts of the crystalloids to precipitate out. This will never occur with massive ascorbic acid therapy. Furthermore, it has been shown that the controls in a given experiment had almost as much oxalic acid spill as did those volunteers taking 9 grams of ascorbic acid daily.

Insect - Snake Bites.

The quickness of results in snake bite, spider bite, hornet stings and caterpillar reactions demonstrates the usefulness in saving lives. It is best to give the vitamin intravenously with a syringe since bottle preparations are too time consuming. One precaution must be given. There exist a 2 gram ascorbic acid ampoule, and ironically it is the only one to my knowledge approved by the Food and Drug Administration, which might "kill" if used undiluted in a syringe. This lethal factor is due to the preservatives added. Each ampoule contains 2 grams sodium ascorbate. Vehicle contains: Monothioglycerol 0.14%; Sodium Formaldehyde Sulfoxylate 0.05%; Methyl Paraben 0.13%; Propyl Paraben 0.015%. Neutralized to pH6 with Sodium Bicarbonate; Water for injection q.s. This ampoule can be used intravenously ONLY when diluted to at least 25 c.c. to one gram. One sometimes will be confronted with extraordinary allergic and shock symptoms along with acute respiratory obstruction. In these situation one must employ Benadryl intravenously and/or intramuscularly and an adrenocortical hormone such as Decadron. These can be given by a nurse while the ascorbic acid is being prepared. In their absence a second "syringe" dose of ascorbic acid will suffice. Fluids by mouth should be given to prevent or correct thirst which all patients seem to experience.

Diabetes

Large doses of ascorbic acid do not cause diabetes mellitus in humans as has been suggested. On the contrary 10 grams daily, by mouth, has proved to be beneficial. The fact that 10 grams will allow them to heal wounds like normal individuals will save many legs in. the future. Lamden, a biochemist, instigated these fears by misinterpretation of the results reported by Patterson using the Ketone formula intravenously in rats.

In Surgery.

In surgery the use of ascorbic acid resolves itself into a "must" situation. The 24 hour frank scurvy levels should be sufficient evidence to encourage all surgeons to use vitamin C freely in their fluids. Proper employment of vitamin C by the surgeons will all but eliminate the post-surgery deaths.

In Malignancy.

The part very large doses of ascorbic acid given intravenously over a prolonged period offers a medical challenge. From cabbage and tomatoes grown in the carbon-14 chambers radioactive ascorbic acid can be extracted, which can be used in tracer studies. At least one research team has demonstrated that in cancer all available "C" is mobilized at the site of the malignancy. Lauber and Rosenfeld reported that "C" is mobilized from the tissues of the body and selectively concentrated in traumatized areas. In one hopeless case we administered 17 grams daily for 92 consecutive days without changing the blood or urine levels from that associated with scurvy. This is the reason we believe a dose range of 100 grams to 300 grams daily by continuous intravenous drip for a period of several months might prove surprisingly profitable. Blood chemistry should be followed daily with such an investigation. Schlegel found that even a dose of 1.5 grams a day, by mouth, would prevent bladder cancer.

Barbiturate Poisoning.

Our findings in no less than 15 cases of barbiturate poisoning suggested that no death should occur from this error in judgment. We also observed the dramatic effect of 12 grams intravenously on blood pressure associated with shock. The shock seen in heat stroke had been corrected by the time the injection was completed. The dose range used was 500 mg per Kg body weight.

Tetanus - Trichinosis

The use of ascorbic acid with Tolserol in the treatment of Tetanus should be accepted as universal treatment. Here again the dose must be proper. Our case as reported will serve as a guide in making these calculations. Ascorbic acid along with Para-Aminobenzoic acid is curative in Trichinosis. Both drugs are administered by mouth. It is estimated that at least 5 million cases of chronic Trichinosis exists in the United States. Just nine days of treatment would return these individuals to normal. In our cases 10 grams ascorbic acid was given daily and Para-Aminobenzoic acid was employed in high range. Four to six grams to start then three grams every 2 hours for eight times. For the remainder of the nine day schedule it was given 3 grams every two hours during the day and every three hours during the night.

Viral Hepatitis.

Ascorbic acid is the drug of choice in viral hepatitis. The dose used ranges from 400 mg to 600 mg per Kg body weight, depending on the severity of the disease. It should be given every 8 to 12 hours. Ten grams ascorbic acid daily in divided doses is also given by mouth. Those under 10 years the usual schedule of at least one gram for each year of life.

Multiple Uses.

We have reviewed many other pathological conditions in which ascorbic acid plays an important part in recovery. To these might be added Cardiovascular Diseases, Hypermenorrhea, Peptic and Duodenal Ulcers, Post-operative and Radiation Sickness, Rheumatic Fever, Scarlet Fever, Poliomyelitis, Acute and Chronic Pancreatitis, Tularemia, Whooping Cough and Tuberculosis. In one case of scarlet fever in which Penicillin and the Sulfa drugs were showing no improvement, fifty grams ascorbic acid given intravenously resulted in a dramatic drop in the fever curve to normal. Here the action of ascorbic acid was not only direct but also as a synergist. A similar situation was observed in a case of lobar pneumonia. In another case of purperal sepsis following a criminal abortion the initial dose of ascorbic acid was 1200 mg per Kg body weight and two subsequent injections were at the 600 mg level. Along with Penicillin and Sulfadiazine an admission temperature of 105.4i³F. was normal in nine hours. The patient made an uneventful recovery. In one spectacular case of Black Widow[69] spider bite in a 3 1/2 year old child, in coma, one gram calcium gluconate and 4 grams of ascorbic acid was administered intravenously when first seen in the office. Four grams ascorbic acid was then given every six hours using a 20 c.c. syringe. She was awake and well in 24 hours. Physical examination showed a comatose child with a rigid abdomen. The area about the umbilicus was red and indurated, suggesting a strangulated hernia. With a 4 power lens, fang marks were in evidence. Thirty hours after starting the vitamin C therapy the child expelled a large amount of dark clotted blood. There was no other residual. A review of the literature confirmed that this individual has been the only one to survive with such findings; the others were reported at autopsy. Ten grams vitamin C and 200 mg to 400 mg vitamin B-6, by mouth, daily will "shield" one from mosquito bites. Twenty percent will also require 100 mg vitamin B-6 intramuscularly each week.

General Nutrition.

Vitamin C plays a very important role in general nutrition. Deficiency of this substance in sufficient amounts can be a factor in loss of appetite, loss of weight or failure to grow, muscular weakness, anemia and various skin lesions. The relationship between vitamin C and the health of the gums and teeth has long been recognized. Laboratory studies on gum-teeth connective tissue have reaffirmed this relationship.[70] Our son who will be 19 in July has never developed a tooth cavity. Since age 10 he has received at least 10 grams ascorbic acid, daily, by mouth. Before age 10 the amount given was on a sliding scale.[71]

Intravenous Application.

Ascorbic acid must be given by needle to bring about quick reversal of various "insults" to the human body. We have found that doses must range from 350 mg to 1200 mg per Kg body weight. Under 400 mg per Kg of body weight the injection can be made with a syringe provided the vitamin is buffered with sodium bicarbonate with Sodium Bisulfite added. Above 400 mg doses per Kg body weight, and a particular ampoule described in this summary, the vitamin must be diluted to at least 18 c.c. of 5 per cent dextrose in water, saline in water or Ringer's solution. Many times Adenosine 5-Monophosphate, 25 mg in children and 50 to 100 mg in adults, given intramuscularly, is necessary to achieve results. The aqueous solution is more effective for quick results, although Adenosine in Gel can be employed. In debilitated individuals or when the pathology is serious, Desoxycorticosterone Acetate (DCA), aqueous solution, must also be added to the schedule. Usually 2.5 mg for children and 5 mg for adults is the daily intramuscular dose required. Sudden swelling of the feet indicates abnormal sensitivity and the drug must be discontinued.

It must be remembered when using ascorbic acid that experiments on man are the only experiments which can give positive evidence of therapeutic action in man. Likewise, the use of ascorbic acid in human pathology must follow the Law of Mass Action: "In reversible reactions, the extent of chemical change is proportional to the active masses of the interacting substance."

FRED R. KLENNER, M.D.

Reidsville, N.C.

 

 

Omega-3s Aid in Cancer Battle

 

Previously, a number of studies suggest that long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), inhibit cancer formation in vivo but their mechanism of action is unclear.  Zacharoula Nikolakopoulou, from the University of London (United Kingdom), and colleagues studied squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC), one of the major forms of skin cancer. In that squamous cells also occur in the lining of the digestive tract, lungs, and other areas of the body, oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) are the sixth most common cancer worldwide.  In their experiments, the researchers grew cell cultures in the lab from several different cells lines to which they added fatty acids. The cell lines included both malignant oral and skin SCCs, along with pre-malignant cells and normal skin and oral cells. The team observed that omega-3 fatty acids induced cell death in malignant and pre-malignant cells at doses which did not affect normal cells, with the researchers positing the effect as partly due to an over-stimulation of epidermal growth factor, which triggered cell death.  The study authors submit that: “Our results show that, in part, [eicosapentaenoic acid] specifically inhibits [squamous-cell carcinoma] growth and development by … supporting the chemopreventative potential of [eicosapentaenoic acid].”

 

A study on drug resistant TB with a surprising result

 

A group of researchers at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in NYC stumbled upon a potential cure for both MDR-TB and XDR-TB while attempting to study the mechanics of how the TB bacterium becomes resistant to the normal protocol of first line TB antibiotics.

The study was in vitro (in glass), so they created a TB bacteria culture to see how that bacteria would resist isoniazid (INH), a premier first line TB antibiotic. Dr. William Jacobs, a PhD microbiologist, and his team had observed that isoniazid-resistant TB bacteria lacked the mycothiol molecule.

Dr. Jacobs said ",We hypothesized that TB bacteria that can't make mycothiol might contain more cysteine, an amino acid. So, we predicted that if we added isoniazid and cysteine to isoniazid-sensitive M. tuberculosis in culture, the bacteria would develop resistance. Instead, we ended up killing off the culture - something totally unexpected."

Surprised but now curious and willing to expand their study, the researchers decided to try some other experiments. Thinking the cysteine acted as a reducing agent to damage DNA via free radical oxidation, they decided to use vitamin C as a reducing agent instead of cysteine and they got the same result.

This evolved to using only vitamin C, which killed not only the normally-susceptible-to-isoniazid TB bacterium, but also the multi-drug resistant MDR-TB and XDR-TB strains, which are super resistant.

To justify human trials (in vivo) with vitamin C for multi-drug resistant TB, the researchers embarked on determining the molecular reasons of why vitamin C handled the petri dish bacterium.

After further research, it was determined that vitamin C caused iron to react with other molecules, creating a reactive oxygen type that was too much to handle for the MDR-TB and XDR-TB strains, which normally withstand antibiotics. They also discovered that TB couldn't develop a resistance to vitamin C.

"We ... now have a rational basis for doing a clinical trial," Dr. Jacobs said conclusively. "[V]itamin C is inexpensive, widely available and very safe to use. At the very least, this work shows us a new mechanism that we can exploit to attack TB."

Vitamin C is widely available, but it's unlikely that the AMA and Big Pharma will allow its use. Instead, they may use Dr. Jacob's fine work uncovering the mechanics of vitamin C to create a patentable pharmaceutical TB drug.

Otherwise, it will go the way of Dr. Frederick Klenner's successful injected vitamin C work on polio before the polio vaccine's prominence.

 

Magnesio Treonato

 
È al professore e premio Nobel Susumu Tonegawa che dobbiamo il primo studio su magnesio L-treonato, sale di magnesio dell'acido L-treonico, un metabolita naturale di vitamina C.

¤ Il ruolo del magnesio nella memoria e nelle funzioni cognitive è suggerito da molto tempo. Purtroppo, i trasportatori abituali di questo minerale non attraversano la barriera emato-encefalica. Un gruppo di ricercatori del Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) hanno scoperto che il magnesio L-treonato, un composto unico, ha permesso di aumentare in modo significativo la concentrazione di magnesio nel cervello. Poiché la densità delle sinapsi, connessioni tra i neuroni essenziali per la capacità di apprendimento e memorizzazione, dipende dall'età del soggetto, hanno ipotizzato che la somministrazione di magnesio L-treonato potrebbe consentire il miglioramento degli atteggiamenti di apprendimento, della memoria di lavoro e della memoria a breve e lungo termine.

¤ I primi esperimenti di successo sono stati condotti sui ratti e c'è stato un significativo aumento della densità e della plasticità delle sinapsi nell'ippocampo, l'area del cervello in cui risiede la memoria. Il miglioramento delle capacità di memorizzazione degli animali più vecchi è stato stimato al 19%. Nei test di memoria spaziale (ritrovare la strada in un ambiente familiare), il miglioramento osservato è stato superiore al 100%! Lo studio ha anche dimostrato che, quando la somministrazione di magnesio treonato veniva interrotta, la densità delle sinapsi del cervello era notevolmente ridotta.

¤ Uno studio umano è in corso presso la University of Southern California e sono coinvolti una quarantina di soggetti; i risultati saranno disponibili tra qualche mese. Questi primi passi spianano la strada a ulteriori studi per valutare gli effetti del magnesio treonato nel prevenire il morbo di Alzheimer, la demenza e la sua utilità nel trattamento di altri aspetti dell'invecchiamento.

. Dati i risultati di studi sugli animali e la sicurezza dell'uso di questo composto naturale ben tollerato alle dosi indicate, l'uso di magnesio L-treonato può essere già proposto per aumentare i livelli di magnesio nel cervello, aumentare la densità e la plasticità delle sinapsi e migliorare le capacità cognitive ad esse associate.
¤ Più recentemente, è stata anche osservata un'azione positiva nel trattamento preventivo della calvizie androgena
Intravenous Vitamin C - A Cancer Killer The FDA Wants Banned


Vitamin C has a broad spectrum antioxidant function with the ability to protect cell structures and DNA from free radical damage. Vitamin C is remarkably safe even in enormously high doses. Compared to commonly used prescription drugs, side effects are virtually nonexistent. No matter how high the concentration, vitamin C does not harm healthy cells. Yet, through an array of enzymatic and metabolic reactions, vitamin C has an impressive ability to protect and treat and wide range of diseases, including cancer. When something is this effective at treating disease, the FDA will stop at nothing to prevent public access.

The benefits of long-term vitamin C consumption in excess of the U.S. government recommended daily allowance (RDA) are widely acknowledged and include reduced risks of cancer, cardiovascular disease and cataracts. Higher-than-RDA vitamin C intakes have been associated with increases in good HDL cholesterol, decreases in LDL cholesterol oxidation, decreased blood pressure and decreased cardiovascular mortality.

The first physician to aggressively use vitamin C to treat disease was Frederick R. Klenner, M.D., beginning in the early 1940s. Dr. Klenner successfully treated chicken pox, measles, mumps, tetanus and polio with huge doses of vitamin C. He used massive doses of vitamin C for more than 40 years of family practice. Many practioners who practice with IV vitamin C consider the treatment more effective than any vaccine ever invented.

Vitamin C particularly has a leading antioxidant role in the intercellular space surrounding each cell. It also has the ability to regenerate and optimize other key antioxidants such as vitamin E.

It is a water soluble vitamin scientifically known as ascorbic acid (reduced form). Its absorption is relatively efficient at 70-90% for low doses. Any excess vitamin C that is not absorbed in the digestive tract is excreted. This prevents overdose by oral ingestion. Humans are one of the few species of animal that are not able to produce vitamin C. We rely on dietary intake to maintain stores. Many people with low dietary intakes of fruits and vegetables have sub-optimal levels of vitamin C. In fact, cancer patients are often shown to have very low levels of vitamin C.

Evidence documents Vitamin C as one of the best antiviral agents now available. Vitamin C can neutralize and eliminate a wide range of toxins. Vitamin C will enhance host resistance, greatly augmenting the immune system’s ability to neutralize bacterial and fungal infections.

A study in the American Heart Journal found that the risk of heart failure increased with decreasing plasma vitamin C; Every 20 .mol/L increase in plasma vitamin C concentration was associated with a 9% relative reduction in risk of heart failure.

Vitamin C in Cancer Treatment

In the 1970s, doctors Ewan Cameron, Nikolaas Campbell, and Linus Pauling were the first to report the use of high dose vitamin C to treat terminally ill cancer patients. They found that IV and oral treatments increased survival times compared to those patients who did not receive treatments. Since the initial studies by Cameron and Pauling, the exact anti-cancer mechanism of vitamin C has been studied and clarified. Considering the various functions of vitamin C in the human body, two distinct modes of action have been identified when it comes to cancer. For prevention, vitamin C has antioxidant effects that protect key cellular structure and functions. It also prevents the formation of dangerous cancer-causing compounds. The dose to achieve an antioxidant effect is low (under 2 grams) and is achievable by dietary intake or oral supplementation.

The second mechanism of action is actually a pro-oxidant effect. Doses above 15 grams are proven to have a “pro-oxidant” effect by generating hydrogen peroxide, which in turn selectively destroys cancer cells. High doses of vitamin C are preferentially delivered to the areas surrounding the tumour because the vitamin molecule looks similar to a sugar molecule and cancer cells have an increased demand for sugar to fuel their unregulated growth. When in the area surrounding the cells, the vitamin C molecule reacts with a metal ion such as iron or copper and forms a hydrogen peroxide molecule that damages the cancer cell.

Over and above the pro- and antioxidant effects, vitamin C has been shown to regulate cell division via the p53 protein (essential in cancer treatment and prevention), improve immune response, and reduce the severity of cachexia (weight loss due to cancer). A recent study also found that high dose vitamin C reduced C-reactive protein levels and pro-inflammation cytokines in cancer patients, which in turn had positive effects on tumour markers.

Linus Pauling, PhD, and Ewan Cameron, MD, published a case report about 100 terminal cancer patients who had been treated with high-dose IV and oral vitamin C. The patients who received this therapy survived an average of 300 days longer than a control group of patients with similar disease status, and 22 percent of them lived longer than one year, compared to just 0.4 percent in the control group.

Based on these results, Dr. Pauling convinced the National Cancer Institute (NCI) to evaluate this therapy in a clinical trial of patients with advanced cancer. But when the results were published, vitamin C showed no therapeutic value. Why? Because rather than using IV and oral vitamin C as Drs. Pauling and Cameron had done, the NCI used oral vitamin C alone. Of course the study failed--it’s impossible to achieve the requisite blood levels with oral doses.

The body tightly controls levels of this vitamin by limiting intestinal absorption. Intravenous administration bypasses this control mechanism, and blood levels rise in a dose-dependent manner. For example, 10 g of IV vitamin C raises blood levels 25 times higher than the same dose taken orally, and this increases up to 70-fold as doses get larger. Nevertheless, the flawed study gave conventional doctors an excuse to shun vitamin C, and to this day they dredge it up as proof that vitamin C is ineffective as a cancer therapy.

Mark Levine, MD, a researcher at the National Institutes of Health has done a great deal of work on the mechanisms of vitamin C in the treatment of cancer. It was Dr. Levine’s team that figured out exactly how vitamin C kills cancer. Vitamin C interacts with iron and other metals in the extracellular fluid (as opposed to within the cells) to create hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide plays a vital signaling role in the immune system, marshalling white blood cells to sites of injury or disease. In high concentrations, it does much more. Hydrogen peroxide damages the DNA and mitochondria of aberrant cells, shuts down their energy supply, and kills them outright. Best of all--and unlike virtually all conventional chemotherapy drugs that destroy cancer cells--it is selectively toxic. No matter how high the concentration, vitamin C does not harm healthy cells.

Expectations, Outcomes and Dosage

How much vitamin C is an effective therapeutic dose? Dr. Klenner administered up to 300,000 mg per day. Generally, he gave 350 to 700 mg per kilogram (2.2 pounds) body weight per day. Dr. Klenner emphasized that small amounts do not work.

The dosage and route of administration of vitamin C is essential to determine if it has a direct anti-tumour action or a supportive, antioxidant function. The levels needed to achieve direct tumorcidal effects are at least 200-1000 micromol/L. To achieve these higher anti-cancer levels, IV doses of 25-50 grams are required. 50 grams of IV vitamin C can achieve a plasma level of over 14,000 micromol/L. Oral supplementation is insufficient due to very limited absorption in the digestive tract. Plasma vitamin C levels peak after 200 mg of oral supplementation, and maximal oral dosing before loose stools occur is around 4 grams. Oral absorption can be increased if doses are split up during the day, taken with a meal, or in a sustained released formula. Even when using the same 10 gram dose, intravenous administration achieved a 50-150 fold greater plasma vitamin C level compared to oral supplementation.

Vitamin C (and in turn hydrogen peroxide) levels peak within 30 minutes after IV administration and then return to normal within 24 hours. This makes the direct anti-cancer treatment effective for only a short period time and therefore frequent treatments are needed. The benefit of this is that other therapies can be used in short succession after vitamin C without fear of interactions. Most integrative oncologists recommend IV treatments once or twice a week, with oral supplementation on all the other days, for at least 12 months, with regular lab testing to assess tumour markers and progression.

A number of review papers and case studies by integrative cancer physicians and researchers have reported improved cancer survival times and quality of life, and even tumour regression in some cases, after weekly IV vitamin C treatments done consistently over 12 months or longer. It is also important to note that vitamin C therapy may not work for everyone and for every type of cancer. It is always recommended to consult your Naturopathic doctor to see if vitamin C therapy is right for you.

FDA Wants IV Vitamin C Banned

Now the FDA is reported to be prohibiting small pharmacies from manufacturing or distributing injectable vitamin C. This is regardless of the fact that vitamin C is a powerful healing substance that is great for a lot of health conditions.

Not only is the FDA seeking to eradicate use of IV vitamin C, but they are also working to ban injectable magnesium chloride and injectable vitamin B complex 100 as well. These substances are used to make what is called ‘Myers Cocktail‘, which is used for conditions like chronic fatigue syndrome, hepatitis, AIDS, mononucleosis, and influenza.

A sure sign of a powerful therapeutic agent is when the FDA tries tot shut it down.

Their reasoning has nothing to do with safety, as vitamin C has continually proven to be one of the least toxic nutrients in foods and liquid forms have a safe history of use. Instead, the FDA is banning IV vitamin C because it can't be patented, and can't be taken through the FDA's approval process for a "new drug."

While oral doses can correct deficiencies and maintain antioxidant levels within the body, IV infusions are required to reach pro-oxidant, anti-cancer plasma levels. To harness maximum benefit, both oral and IV treatments are needed to take advantage of the wide range of anti-cancer effects. While more studies are needed, there is a large body of evidence proving that it is a effective vitamin that can play a major role in an integrative cancer treatment plan.

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